Evolutionary Cooperation overtime
Evolutionary psychology concentrate on understanding of human conduct focused around evolutionary science and cognitive neuroscience drives new understandings with respect to the premise and inspiration for good conduct. Along these lines, morals have been comprehended and taught expecting that people are by nature social and naturally narrow-minded.
Morals are reflection on goodness and disagreeableness, good and bad, uprightness and bad habit, ought’s and should not be. The refinement in the middle of morals and profound quality is the qualification between the object of study and the study of morals. Morals are eventually about standards for human social collaboration.
Contemporary moral hypothesis is progressively getting to be “naturalistic,” established in the understanding of evolutionary science and cognitive neuroscience. However, moral hypothesis situated in people’s natural nature can be followed to present ending with Charles Darwin from Aristotle, Adam Smith, and David Hume.
Our sociality originates from our requirement for each other with a specific end goal to survive and flourish. The proclamation of our species obliges a substantial interest in youngster raising the participation of folks in the raising of posterity. It is because of our substantial brains and the expanded time of reliance essential for physical and cognitive development. Participation with different people is a necessity for social living. For Darwin, the profoundly withstanding social senses give a premise whereupon discerning, ordinary standards are accordingly.
To comprehend human profound quality as focused around evolutionary science, it must be recognized that, from an absolutely natural viewpoint, the objective of the human living being is to have its qualities communicated in an alternate generation. Natural determination thinks basically not about us, yet about our qualities being proclaimed. The detainee’s quandary exhibits that fruitful participation in a social setting is the consequence of proportional compassion.
A conceivable clarification of compassion is given by the hypothesis of gathering determination as recommended by Darwin himself while pondering issue of social insects which contends that characteristic choice can follow up on gatherings: aggregates that are more fruitful – for any reason, including scholarly practices – will advantage the people of the gathering, regardless of the fact that they are not related. It has had a capable claim, however has not been completely powerful, to a limited extent in light of challenges in regards to con artists that partake in the gathering without contributing.
Robert Trivers showed how corresponding unselfishness can advance between inconsequential people, even between people of altogether distinctive species. Also, the relationship of the people included is precisely undifferentiated from the circumstances in a certain manifestation of the Prisoner’s Dilemma. The Randian add that the speculation toward oneself is fundamental is generally unchallenged, yet turned on its head by distinguishing of an extensive, and significant perspective of what constitutes venture toward oneself.
Specialists choose to coordinate as per what number of cooperators there are in the gathering, and their technique is characterized by the quantity of cooperators they require to choose to participate.
Modern understanding of evolutionary science and human neuroscience are transforming understanding of human conduct, particularly moral conduct. As an outcome, morals is beginning to be seen as having an exact science measurement a science base that is testing large portions of the philosophical points of view that have been held for a considerable length of time. Understanding a definitive causation of human conduct is established in mankind’s evolutionary history. Evolutionary science shows that people created the characteristic of compassion as an aftereffect of the parental holding that happened as a consequence of a developed outset of human posterity. From it, the empathic men to family and others developed. An appreciation of the needs of others situated in relating in helping practices, practices that would be responded if an agreeable relationship were to be kept up. Such collaboration improved survival and multiplication. Ethical quality developed as compassion based arrangement of reasonable participation.
Compassion is a vital quality for an individual entering a helping calling, for example, dentistry. It is of identical significance to brainpower and perceptual engine expertise. Sympathy shifts in the populace as do these other two vital human characteristics and can be measured too. Dental instructors ought to consider evaluating compassion in the confirmations process, and pioneers in dental instruction ought to work to make schools of dentistry that are good communities in which concern is a fundamental attribute
The moral rules give a record of ethical quality that clarifies and defends the keen good choices and judgments of good specialists. The records of fair-mindedness and levelheadedness are additionally accounts of these ideas that clarify their focal and rational use by keen individuals in ordinary life. The fact of the matter is to portray these ideas, not to change them. These depictions of the ideas of unbiased attitude, profound quality, and rationality likewise demonstrate the nearby and perplexing relationship. It is the genuine cognizant business of these ideas, not what logicians say in regards to them that is imperative.
Profound quality’s nearby connotation with fairness and reasonability gets to be apparent just when an objective individual uses just those convictions that are imparted by all reasonable persons (sanely-obliged-convictions). Indeed with this constraint to rationally obliged convictions, not all fair-minded normal persons will concede to the majority of their ethical choices and judgments, however they will all concur on the general good system or framework that they use in settling on these ethical choices and judgments. Nonetheless, if a fair, reasonable individual uses particular convictions, for instance, religious convictions, there may be no real way to achieve understanding about ethical quality. Any case about all normal people concurring ought to be seen as a claim that all rational persons who utilize just judiciously obliged convictions.
Preventing Pollution/how to prevent pollution/ pollution prevention
Pollution prevention is a concern to many companies and everybody right now, especially after a massive global warming alarm in the 20th century, many facilities and institutions are trying to implement on issues which will bring an end or halter on matters concerning pollution.
This has enabled many plants, facilities, companies and institution to try and implement the new changes in their organizations programs to enable minimization of pollution, minimization of waste production and the introduction of purchasing of recyclable materials.
Setting a pollution prevention goal for the company
Below is a list of my proposed goals which will help in tackling, halting and implementing new issues concerning pollution in the plant.Positive procurement practices to ensure the purchase of recycled content materials as directed by environment protection agency.
Increase the volume of recycled materials.
Decrease the purchase of unnecessary toxic and hazardous chemicals.
Decrease the generation of solid wastes.
Decrease the consumption and free of pollutants as directed by the agency pollution prevention strategists.
Reduce the release and exploitation of the toxic chemicals to environmental justice areas where socioeconomic factors are of concern.
Decrease the implementation of extremely hazardous chemicals in the facility.
Reduction in the consumption of materials, water and power in the facility.
Establish a pollution prevention team
Select the pollution prevention team of which they should be selected from the current facility staff and try to Convince and gain support from the staff; the project of pollution prevention should be supported by maintenance engineers, supply staff, safety staff and occupational health professionals but also the help of some staff to help in the field work may be required. This will help in smoothing of work when it comes to implementing the new pollution prevention policies in the facility. The prevention team should be managed by a leader from the environmental prevention agency.
Gather and ask for ideas from the staff team, make them donate ideas on how they think the matter of pollution in the plant should be tackled. Provide some prevention skills to some staff making them to understand and have the idea on how to tackle and prevent pollution in the facility; this will be by offering some lessons concerning pollution management and prevention to the staffs.
Creating a management commitment
Try to create a bonding bridge between the upper management and the staff; this will help in the prevention plan to run more smoothly to facilitate the growth and prevention of pollution within the plant facility. Determine and know the responsibilities of who are supposed to purchase and handle raw materials in the plant.
Conduct a pollution prevention opportunity assessment
The staff team should come up with ideas on how to prevent pollution; they are also supposed to identify activities that will promote pollution prevention. Identify or come up with some potential prevention activities and opportunities that will help promote the pollution prevention. Implementation of immediate changes in the facility to help in pollution prevention, provide applications of current pollution prevention policies, techniques or technologies.
The staff will have to conduct analytical measurements on studies; it will have for them to assess pollution prevention opportunities before the completion of the analysis, during this act additional analysis will be required. Thorough pollution preventive assessments opportunities should be conducted by the facility staff, also the baseline may show the processes acquiescent to pollution prevention options. When the activities concerning the preventing pollution plan are completed or new ones are identified through pollution prevention opportunity assessments, the list of prevention activities will change, here is when the listing of all the pollution preventive activities and opportunities are identified.
Set plan on how to manage different issues in the plant such as cost reduction in the purchasing of non recyclable materials, minimizing the usage of toxic and hazardous chemicals or reduction of water usage in the plant. Exertion and implementation of issues concerning pollution prevention, this will help in impacting the process responsible for environmental issues.
Develop criteria and rank facility on wide pollution prevention activities.
The project should depend on the facility specific consideration and goals on which this is the order in which you choose to initiate pollution prevention activities. It will also initiate on improving the facility overall compliances status. Determine the environmental benefits, the time taken for the implementation of changes in the facility and the save on cost associated with project implementation changes. Figure out the impact on the project in the plant mission and the ability of the facility staff to accomplish their mission. Develop, identify and agree on a list of action items that you and the facility staff will undertake to amalgamate pollution prevention into the facility activities.
Criteria to consider
The availability of disposal capacity, community and surroundings concerns, environmental justice goals, workers safety and exposure, expectancy of future regulations and resource consumption. Rank and rate all pollution prevention activities that reflect how the activity matches the decisive factor.
Conduct a management review
Select, agree and elect a professional committee to review on pollution prevention plans. One the committee has selected a prevention team and it has developed a ranked list of pollution prevention activities, you have to gain support from the upper management and staff to help in the implementing of the new plan on pollution prevention.
This opportunity will enable the upper management to show support to the environment friendly project for preventing pollution. The preventive staff working on the project should present a pollution prevention plan ranked list and call attention to the potential benefits of the effort. Get full support from the upper management on the project by making them understand the relationship between the pollution prevention plan programs and their impacts on the plant mission and the current environmental programs.
(n.d) Pollution prevention. Steps for developing facility pollution prevention plan. Retrieved from http://www.labtrain.noaa.gov/ppguide/ffpp_14.htm
(n.d). U.S department of energy office of science. Pollution prevention. Community and environment. Retrieved from www.anl.gov/Community_and_Environment/pollutionprevention.html
(n.d). Pollution prevention. Pollution prevention. Retrieved from http://www.alcosan.org/Education/PollutionPrevention/tabid/72/Default.aspx
(n.d). Pollution prevention. Pollution prevention. Retrieved from http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/hwtr/p2/index.html
Tam, Hayley. (2011). Pollution prevention. Pollution incident response planning by machinery or electrical equipment businesses. Retrieved from http://www.netregs.gov.uk/netregs/businesses/62287.aspx
Ratel, Kanel. (2010). pollution prevention. Pollution prevention. Retrieved from http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/pollutionpreve/WasteStream/default.asp#Hazardous Wastes
American Criminal Justice and War on Drugs
American Criminal Justice and War on Drugs
James P. Gray, a California based trial court judge in his book Why Our Drug Laws Have Failed and What We Can Do About It: A Judicial Indictment of the War on Drugs believes that war on drugs has been a subject of failure. This regards its impact on society and on its own terms mainly on the stopping of use of illegal drugs. As a former federal prosecutor and an experienced trial judge who briefly held a record for the largest drug prosecution in the Central District of California, he authoritatively speaks about the issues related to the drugs war. He uses a compelling language to describe the war on drugs as exemplified in the opening words of his book. He states that that it is inevitable that the drug policies will eventually change. However, when this happens, people will be left back looking astonished that the former policies had prevailed for the extended period. He compares it to Jim Crow laws, slavery, or the days when women never voted.
In the United States the raging debate on the criminal law proper role in drug control does not centralize around the usual political geography left verses right divisions. A civil war of ideas for generations has been waged between the libertarian and their American right opponents of state drug control and more order conservatives and traditional law. Around 1990 at the zenith of the American drug war, prominent libertarian and conservatives intellectuals provided extreme state control leadership example Milton Friedman who came to be known for his radical deregulations and William Bennett for being the first drug tsar and based on their ideas the deprofitization proposal stated by James P. Gray finds its basis.
The current American treatment of drugs in the criminal justice mainly the surrounding events on the issue reveal that the fear centralizes largely on the notion that many people would support taking the drugs under a legal and supervised regime. However, this presumption may not be correct since there is no direct correlation between the drug-trafficking incidence and the harshness of drug laws. If considered from this aspect legalization that Judge James P. Gray proposes in theory might be able to regulate and even reduce both supply and demand of the drugs (Gray, 2001).
The impact the implementation of the legalization would have on the drug control would be to transform the drugs issue from a law and order related problem to a public health issue. It would also help drive away the gangsters. In addition, the regulated drug tax implemented by the government will ensure that raised funds are effectively redirected into other economic sectors like education, which focus on public education and the risks and treatment of addicts of the substance abuse. The government will also realize that different drugs need different levels of regulations and taxation. The difficulty in this system would be imperfect and fiddly that would require monitoring constantly hard to measure tradeoffs and constant monitoring. Other levels of post-tax prices should be set as a means of striking a balance between discouraging desperate acts and a black market in which prostitution and thefts in which addicts often resort to maintain their habits and damping down use (Gray, 2001).
The main arguments that Judge Gray offers center on utilitarian aspects that go against prohibition of drugs. He states that the enacted laws that should address the prohibition of drugs are not effective, but instead help in the eroding of civil liberties, and the prohibition of drugs is a leading cause of democratic debate stifling mainly over the drug policies, and in this manner increases the danger to the users. In summary, the author stops short of advocating for full implementation of drug legalization through his preferred solutions of a combination of treatment programs, realistic education, punishment for harm to others, regulated sales of drugs (Hakim, 2011).
Thinking of this, proposed notion of legalization requires thinking on the possible issues associated with drug use. Under the influence of the drugs, some users tend to harm possible third parties an example is on marijuana users. A well-established principal of criminal law and tort exists to handle such harms. Reviewing the response of how the principals of legal drug market would apply include seeing advertisements that would support responsible drug use. In addition, there would be a clear incentive for the drug manufacturers to directly invest in the drugs developing mainly on substances that provide lesser risks and short-term high effects that would not impair its social application. This would also be an incentive to the vendors since out of lawsuits fear they would be careful to see that there is a safe behavior by their patrons.
By comparing the present situation to the foregoing hypothetical scenario that the book proposes, drug users search for longer lasting highs due to the fact that the possession of the drugs if done in large quantities mainly by weight increases the stipulated penalties and also they are aware that the drugs purchasing also presents a threat. There is no incentive to the drug dealers to have closer relation or contact with their clients and as such, they centralize on this to avoid chances of being captured. This implies that their cannot be a legal advertisement by the drug manufacturers the issue here is not that there is no profit to the participants in the drug industry, but that the legal system prevents them to effectively participate in the market (Gray, 2013).
Some of Judge Gray’s biggest critics state that his approach had flaws in three main areas. First, he exclusively and heavily relied on popular press accounts as basis to support his factual claims. Even though this view seems baffling, it helps stress the fact that Judge Gray is well conversant on the subject and is aware of the wide professional literature and journals on divergent angels of the war on drugs and the many governmental reports on the matter. If the opinion being expressed had been his own personal account and position the relevance of the citation would not matter, but since he tries to document the drug prohibition failures the lack of better sources of quality undermines his overall message. Critics find the fact that he over relied on popular media as his main source is frustrating since Judge Gray according to most of them was in a strategic position to offer new material on that area that few other authors could provide mainly data on what judiciary thought on the drugs issue.
Judge Gray is also criticized for considering the drug policy in a vacuum, without trying to frame it on a broader aspect. Critical civil liberties questions are raised by the drug policy, but this is similar to other policies within the government mainly the state and federal government’s rights violation in connection to the divergent volume of drug policies but not from their rights violation in connection with gun laws and tax laws. Since there is no rights based analysis that is offered by Judge Gray on the antidrug laws impact, his account however offers no means of a possible consistent approach to the issue. In addition there is also an issue with how Judge Grey proposes to solve the drug issue mainly that of de-profitization that could be brought by a regulated distribution system which his solution revolves on the statement that states that it is much easier to regulate, control and police a legal market as compared to an illegal one (Hakim, 2011).
The author as a long time judge has spent many years imposing compulsory drug court regimes rehabilitation on the offenders and due to this he strongly believes on the efficiency of the drug court system. His acknowledging of the fact that addicts have to be coerced in order for them to receive and be kept in treatment makes it hard for them to be helped this is in unison with the capability of the criminal justice system of coercing into productive and meaningful sobriety the drug users. There are challenges to this proposal like the difficulty of finding candidates to enroll for the abstinence programs due to the many experiments being carried out currently on policies, and the 29-points plan proposed by Judge Gray that may strike many as unprincipled and incoherent for the orthodox libertarians.
In conclusion, through the provision of honest information on different drugs prices and their related health issues, consumers can be steered by the government towards the ones with least effects. In addition, designer drugs proliferation cannot be prevented by prohibitions thought of in laboratories. However, the legalization can also be used as a means of enticing and encouraging legitimate drug companies to try to improve the substances that people partake. The resources saved on repression and the resources would allow the guarantee of treatment by the governments to addicts as a way of making the legalization process more politically palatable.
Gray J.P. (2001). Why our drug laws have failed and what we can do about it: A judicial indictment of the War on Drugs. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Gray, J. (2010). Why our drug laws have failed: a judicial indictment of war on drugs. Temple University Press.
Hakim, P. (2011). Rethinking US Drug Policy. Beckley Foundation.
How to Prevent Hospital Readmission with COPD Patients
Course Number & Name
Instructor’s full name and credentials
How to Prevent Hospital Readmission with COPD Patients
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable lung disease characterized by persistent airflow limitation. COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (Toth et al., 2018). The purpose of this paper is to review the current literature on preventing hospital readmissions for COPD patients. To do this, a variety of peer-reviewed articles will be consulted. The focus will be on identifying effective interventions that can be used to reduce the rate of readmissions. Additionally, this paper will explore the potential reasons COPD patients are at a higher risk for readmission, such as inadequate discharge planning. By understanding the literature on this topic, it will be possible to make recommendations for future research and for ways to improve clinical practice.
My topic is how to prevent hospital readmission for COPD patients. COPD is a chronic and progressive lung disease characterized by difficulty breathing. It is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and the number of people affected by COPD is expected to continue to rise in the coming years (Benjenk et al., 2018). Hospital admissions for COPD are common, and patients with COPD are at a higher risk for readmission than those without the condition. Reducing hospital readmissions is important as it can improve patient outcomes and save healthcare costs.
Methods of Searching
Various methods were used to search for peer-reviewed articles on preventing hospital readmissions for COPD patients. First, multiple databases were searched, including PubMed, CINAHL, and ProQuest. Second, keywords were utilized in order to find relevant articles, including “COPD”, “hospital readmissions”, “prevention”, “interventions”, and “self-management”. Third, the reference lists of relevant articles were reviewed to find additional sources. Google Scholar, which played a significant role in finding the most relevant research sources, was searched to find grey literature on the topic. A total of five peer-reviewed articles were found that met the inclusion criteria.
Review of the Literature
The article done by Liang et al. (2021) discusses the characteristics and time course of exacerbations of COPD. The authors used data from two large studies, the ECLS and the ECRHS, to identify patterns in COPD exacerbations. They found that most exacerbations were triggered by viral infections and typically lasted 7-10 days. They also found that patients with more severe COPD were more likely to have exacerbations requiring hospitalization. This article provides valuable insights into COPD exacerbations’ nature and potential triggers. It also highlights the importance of preventing exacerbations to reduce hospital readmissions.
Allegrante et al. (2019) in their article discuss the development of an evidence-based guideline for self-management education in outpatient chronic disease populations. The authors systematically reviewed the literature to identify effective interventions for various chronic diseases. They found that self-management education was an effective intervention for reducing hospital admissions and improving patient outcomes. Additionally, they found that this intervention was most effective when it was tailored to the individual patient’s needs. This article provides valuable insights into the potential benefits of self-management education for COPD patients. Additionally, it highlights the importance of tailoring this intervention to the needs of individual patients to maximize its effectiveness.
Benjenk et al. (2018) in their article discuss interventions to reduce hospital readmissions. The authors systematically reviewed the literature to identify effective interventions for reducing readmissions. They found that home visits from nurses or other health professionals after discharge were an effective intervention for reducing readmissions. Additionally, they found that providing patients with written discharge instructions and a list of resources effectively reduced readmissions. This article provides valuable insights into effective interventions for preventing hospital readmissions for COPD patients. Additionally, it highlights the importance of providing patients with discharge instructions and follow-up care after they leave the hospital.
The article by Toth et al. (2018) discusses the impact of post-discharge follow-up care on 30-day all-cause rehospitalization rates among Medicare beneficiaries. The authors used data from the Medicare Beneficiary Survey to assess the impact of post-discharge follow-up care on readmission rates. They found that post-discharge follow-up care was associated with a reduction in 30-day all-cause rehospitalization rates. This article provides valuable insights into the potential benefits of post-discharge follow-up care for reducing hospital readmissions for COPD patients. Additionally, it highlights the importance of providing this type of care to improve patient outcomes.
The article by Lee et al. (2019) discuss factors associated with exacerbations of COPD. The authors used data from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial to identify factors associated with an increased risk of exacerbations. They found that smoking, comorbidities, and lower airflow obstruction were all associated with an increased risk of exacerbations. This article provides valuable insights into the factors associated with an increased risk of hospital readmissions for COPD patients. Additionally, it highlights the importance of identifying these risk factors to develop interventions that can prevent exacerbations and reduce hospital readmissions.
COPD is a preventable and chronic lung disease characterized by airflow obstruction from the lungs. It is caused by long-term exposure to harmful particles such as tobacco smoke. COPD can lead to hospitalization due to exacerbations, which are sudden worsening of symptoms. Patients with COPD are at risk for frequent hospitalizations, and 30% of COPD patients are readmitted to the hospital within one year of their initial discharge (Toth et al., 2018). There are many potential contributing factors to hospital readmissions for COPD patients. Examples include inadequate discharge planning, lack of access to medications and transportation, and patients’ lack of understanding of their disease and how to manage it. Improving communication between patients and providers, ensuring that patients have access to needed resources, and providing adequate self-management education can help reduce hospital readmissions for COPD patients.
Adequate discharge planning is essential to preventing hospital readmissions for COPD patients. Lee et al. (2019) established that patients receiving comprehensive discharge planning were less likely to be readmitted to the hospital than those not receiving discharge planning. The comprehensive discharge planning intervention included providing patients with information about their disease, medication instruction, follow-up appointments, and referrals to community resources. Patients who received this intervention significantly decreased 30-day hospital readmission rates.
Lack of medication access is another potential contributor to hospital readmissions for COPD patients. Toth et al. (2018) reveal that patients with COPD who had difficulty accessing their medications were more likely to be readmitted to the hospital than those who did not have difficulty accessing their medications. The study showed that interventions to improve access to medications, such as providing transportation assistance and home visits, can reduce hospital readmissions for COPD patients.
Patients’ lack of understanding of their disease and how to manage it is another potential contributor to hospital readmissions for COPD patients. Allegrante et al. (2019) found that patients who did not receive education about their disease were more likely to be readmitted to the hospital than those who did receive education about their disease. The study showed that interventions to improve patient education, such as providing printed materials and videos about COPD, can reduce hospital readmissions for COPD patients.
Improving communication between patients and providers can also help to reduce hospital readmissions for COPD patients. Liang et al. (2021) found that patients who had regular follow-up visits with their providers were less likely to be readmitted to the hospital than those who did not have regular follow-up visits. The study showed that interventions to improve communication between patients and providers, such as scheduled phone calls and follow-up visits, can reduce hospital readmissions for COPD patients.
In conclusion, COPD patients are at a higher risk for hospital readmission than those without the condition. This is due to various factors, including comorbidities, difficulty complying with treatment regimens, lack of social support, and poor discharge planning. Many potential interventions can be used to prevent hospital readmissions for COPD patients. One approach is to provide follow-up care after discharge. It can involve home visits from nurses or other health professionals, phone call check-ins, or community resources like pulmonary rehabilitation classes. Another approach is to educate patients and their caregivers on self-management strategies. It can include teaching them how to use inhalers correctly, identifying early signs of exacerbations, and what to do in the event of an exacerbation. Additionally, it is important to provide patients with written discharge instructions and a list of resources they can use if they have any questions or problems after leaving the hospital.
Allegrante, J. P., Wells, M. T., & Peterson, J. C. (2019). Interventions to support behavioral self-management of chronic diseases. Annual review of public health, 40, 127. https://doi.org/10.1146%2Fannurev-publhealth-040218-044008Benjenk, I., & Chen, J. (2018). Effective mental health interventions to reduce hospital readmission rates: a systematic review. Journal of hospital management and health policy, 2. https://doi.org/10.21037%2Fjhmhp.2018.08.05Lee, J., Jung, H. M., Kim, S. K., Yoo, K. H., Jung, K. S., Lee, S. H., & Rhee, C. K. (2019). Factors associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, based on big data analysis. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43167-wLiang, C., Mao, X., Niu, H., Huang, K., Dong, F., Chen, Y., … & Wang, C. (2021). Characteristics, management and in-hospital clinical outcomes among inpatients with acute exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in China: results from the phase I data of ACURE study. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 16, 451. https://doi.org/10.2147%2FCOPD.S281957Toth, M., Holmes, M., Toles, M., Van Houtven, C., Weinberger, M., & Silberman, P. (2018). Impact of Postdischarge Follow-Up Care on Medicare Expenditures: Does Rural Make a Difference? Medical Care Research and Review, 75(3), 327-353. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077558716687499
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