Child Health Communicable Diseases

Nursing Education

1.  READ the following:
•    Chapter 10: Child Health
•    Chapter 11: Communicable Diseases

2.  READ the following four (4) articles related to nursing education systems around the globe (Ireland, Kenya, Poland, China). CLICK on the PDF files.

•    O’Dwyer, P.  (2007). The educational preparation of nurses in Ireland. Nursing Education Perspectives, 28(3), 136-139. [PDF file]
•    Mule, G.K.  (1986). Nursing education in Kenya: Trends and innovations.  International Nursing Review, 33(3), 83-86. [PDF file]
•    Sztembis, B.  (2006). The past, present and future of nurse education in Poland: stages, conditions and activities. International Nursing Review, 53(2), 102-109. [PDF file]
•    Xu, Y., Xu, Z., & Zhang, J.  (2000). The nursing education system in the People’s Republic of China: Evolution, structure and reform. International Nursing Review, 47(4), 207-217. [PDF file]

3.   WRITE a 750 word paper CCOMPARE the nursing education systems of the two (2) of the countries in the above journal articles.  See the Nursing Student Writing Guidelines Checklist for paper requirements and answering the following:

•    HEADING: Political History and Development of Nursing Education:  Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]
o    Describe how the political history of the country influenced nursing education in your selected (2) countries. How did nursing education develop?

•    HEADING: Government and Nursing Organizations Influencing Nursing Education: Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]
o    Which government agency(ies) or organizations influenced the training of nurses and how did the agency(ies) do that?  Did nursing organizations play a role?

•    HEADING: Current System of Nursing Education:  Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]
o    According to the article, what is the current system for educating nurses in the selected counties?  Are there diploma (hospital-based) schools?  Has nursing education moved into university settings?  Is there a combination of nursing education programs (similar to U.S. system) to train nurses?

•    HEADING:  Post-Graduate (Masters) Education:  Comparison of [Selected Country] and [Selected Country]
o    Is post-graduate (masters) education for nurses available?

•    HEADING: Reflections on Nursing Education in [Selected Countries]
o    In conclusion, what surprised you about nursing education in the countries that you selected?

•    Use the above headings in your paper.  In-text citations and a reference list MUST be found in your paper.
•    See the Nursing Student Writing Guidelines Checklist for APA formatting.
•    See end of Module for common paper errors.

•    Comparison of: Political History and Development of Nursing Education;
•    Government and Nursing Organizations Influencing Nursing Education;
•    Current System of Nursing Education;
•    Post-Graduate (Masters) Education

8.8 million children under the age of 5 die each year
Many of these deaths are preventable
Children are a particularly vulnerable population
Closely linked with poverty
Insufficient progress has been made in certain parts of the world in reducing childhood morbidity and mortality

Perinatal : first week of life
Neonatal : referring to the first month of life
Infant : referring to the first year of life
Under-5 : referring to children 0-4 years old

40% of the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries
Disproportionately affect the poor
Enormous economic consequences
Relevance to MDGs
Burden of communicable disease is unnecessary, many can be prevented or treated

Communicable disease- transmitted from animal to animal, animal to human, or human to human
Spread and contracted through food, water, bodily fluids, vector, inhalation, nontraumatic contact, and traumatic contact
Controlled with vaccination, mass chemotherapy, vector control, improved water and sanitation, improved care seeking and disease recognition, case management, and behavioral change

36% of total deaths, 40% of total DALYs lost annually in low- and middle-income countries
Relative importance compared to noncommunicable diseases and injuries varies by region
South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa have highest relative burden of deaths from communicable diseases
Relative importance of specific communicable diseases varies by region, age group

Constrain health and development of children, having an effect on education and productivity
Strong stigma and discrimination associated with HIV, TB, and others
Limit productivity of adult workers
Costs of treatment burden families
High rates reduce investment in a country’s development

The Burden of Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases
Resistant forms of disease emerge or re-emerge when bacteria, parasites, and viruses are genetically altered
Critical global health problems because they can arise anywhere, at anytime, and spread rapidly
Drug resistance limits ability to treat infection

Addressing the Burden of HIV/AIDS
Focus on prevention of new infections
Successful efforts have included strong political leadership and open communication
Approach to prevention must vary with nature of epidemic
Efforts need to combine education and behavioral change, bio-medical approaches, and structural approaches

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