Components of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells and Their Functions

Cell ComponentFunctionPresent in Prokaryotes?Present in Animal Cells?Present in Plant Cells?Plasma membraneSeparates cell from external environment; controls passage of organic molecules, ions, water, oxygen, and wastes into and out of the cellYesYesYesCytoplasmProvides structure to cell; site of many metabolic reactions; medium in which organelles are foundYesYesYesNucleoidLocation of DNAYesNoNoNucleusCell organelle that houses DNA and directs synthesis of ribosomes and proteinsNoYesYesRibosomesProtein synthesisYesYesYesMitochondriaATP production/cellular respirationNoYesYesPeroxisomesOxidizes and breaks down fatty acids and amino acids, and detoxifies poisonsNoYesYesVesicles and vacuolesStorage and transport; digestive function in plant cellsNoYesYesCentrosomeUnspecified role in cell division in animal cells; source of microtubules in animal cellsNoYesNoLysosomesDigestion of macromolecules; recycling of worn-out organellesNoYesNoCell wallProtection, structural support and maintenance of cell shapeYes, primarily peptidoglycan in bacteria but not ArchaeaNoYes, primarily celluloseChloroplastsPhotosynthesisNoNoYesEndoplasmic reticulumModifies proteins and synthesizes lipidsNoYesYesGolgi apparatusModifies, sorts, tags, packages, and distributes lipids and proteinsNoYesYesCytoskeletonMaintains cell’s shape, secures organelles in specific positions, allows cytoplasm and vesicles to move within the cell, and enables unicellular organisms to move independentlyYesYesYesFlagellaCellular locomotionSomeSomeNo, except for some plant spermCiliaCellular locomotion, movement of particles along extracellular surface of plasma membrane, and filtrationNoSomeNo

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