1. Discuss the growing impact on psychology of women and non-White minorities, and identify some pioneering women and minorities within psychology.
2. Describe four NON-RESEARCH career specializations within psychology
3. Discuss Sigmund Freud’s influence on the field of psychology. What are the contributions and critiques of psychoanalytic theory?
4. Humans have a tendency to be afraid of the dark. Using examples, provide an explanation of this phenomenon within the framework of both behaviorism and evolutionary psychology. Are the two explanations necessarily incompatible?
5. Using examples, discuss the benefits and problems associated with behaviorism and its impact on the field of psychology. While the underlying views of behaviorists about the human condition differ markedly from humanistic views, the goals for the advancement of humanity are remarkably similar. Compare and contrast behaviorist views with humanistic psychology.
1,According to evolutionary psychology, jealousy:
A.hinders the ability to attract but facilitates the ability to keep a mate today.
B.aided reproductive success in our ancestors.
C.hindered reproduction in our ancestors through a decrease in “jealous genes.”
D.facilitates reproductive success today.
2,William James is to _____ as Wilhelm Wundt is to _____.
- A.functionalism; behaviorism
- B.structuralism; behaviorism
- C.functionalism; structuralism
- D.structuralism; functionalism
3,The term “patient” is to psychoanalysis as the term “client” is to:
4,The work of animal behavior specialist Margaret Washburn was:
A.critical to the development of the theories of B. F. Skinner.
B.intellectually attacked by John Watson for ascribing conscious mental experiences to animals.
C.warmly received by John Watson for thoroughly describing animals’ perceptual and memory processes.
D.instrumental to Ivan Pavlov’s research on conditioning.
5,In one experiment, Wundt instructed participants in one group to concentrate on perceiving a tone when it sounded before pressing a button. Participants in another group were simply instructed to press the button as soon as the tone sounded. Wundt found that participants in the first group responded slightly more slowly. This experiment was designed to distinguish between:
- A.the perception and interpretation of a stimulus.
- B.the sensation of a stimulus and reaction time.
- C.reaction time and accuracy.
- D.the sensation and perception of a stimulus.
6,Whereas Wundt was interested in the relationship between the elements of consciousness, Titchener was interested in identifying the:
- A.functional value of those elements.
- B.cross-cultural differences in those elemental relationships.
- C.basic elements themselves.
- D.behavioral correlates of those elements.
7,Karen received a PhD in psychology and now treats psychological disorders. Which type of psychologist is Karen?
8,The study of biological processes, especially those of the human body, is called:
9,Plato is to _____ as Aristotle is to _____.
- A.nativism; philosophical empiricism
- B.nativism; dualism
- C.philosophical structuralism; nativism
- D.dualism; nativism
10, In which year did the first non-White person become president of the American Psychological Association?
11,Frederic Bartlett differed from Hermann Ebbinghaus in that Bartlett believed that:
- A.memory is an unobservable construct that cannot be empirically studied.
- B.nonsense syllables should be used in memory research to control for previous learning.
- C.memory studies should involve information that people encounter in everyday life.
- D.memory operates like a photographic reproduction of past experience.