Domestic violence is also known as domestic abuse ,spousal abuse, or intimate partner violence(IPV),can be broadly defined as a pattern of abusive behaviors by one of the partners in an intimate relationship such as a marriage, dating, family, friends or cohabitation. Domestic violence has many forms such a s hitting, kicking, biting, threats, sexual abuse, emotional abuse; controlling or intimidation; stalking. Violence among intimate partners has been long considered a serious problem.
Popular emphasis has tendered to be on women who are victims of domestic violence, many studies show that women suffer greater rates of injury due to domestic violence and some studies show that women suffer higher rates of assault, yet others show that while men tend to inflict injury at high rates the majority of domestic violence is overall is the reciprocal. All forms of domestic abuse have one purpose to gain and maintain total control over the victim; abusers use many tactics to exert power over their spouses or partner, such tactics include; isolation, threats, intimidation, denial and blame. Distinctions need to be found over the types of violence motives of perpetrators, and the social cultural context. Violence by a person against their intimate partner is often done as a way of controlling their partner even if it isn’t necessarily frequent.
Types of domestic abuse
(C.C.V) common couple violence, this kind of violence can occur from a single argument that may cause a partner to lash out at the other.
Intimate terrorism (I.T) -this mostly involves psychological and emotional abuse on a partner.
Violent resistance (V.R) -this is some times thought of as self defense and is the violence perpetrated by the victims on the abuser.
Mutual violent Control (M.V.C) – is a rare type of intimate partner abuse, it mostly occurs when both partners act out in a violent manner.
Causes of domestic violence
Poor self esteem, child growing in a hostile home is likely to have very little self worth. Anger is a fuel that will fan domestic violence. Drug and alcohol abuse, substance abuse may lead to out of control behavior that leads to secondary anger. An environment where violence is either taught by example or accepted as normal will imprint upon a child psyche thereby bringing about domestic violence.
Tactics abusers use to manipulate their victims,
Humiliation here the abuser will do everything in their power to make you feel bad about yourself. The abuser may also dominate you, they feel in charge of the relationship and makes all the decisions, they tell you things and expect you to obey without question. The abusers may also tend to isolate you; they will cut you from the outside world, keep you from seeing your family friends or even from going to work or school. Abusers will also use threats to avoid their partners from leaving them; they will blame their abusiveness on bad childhood or even the victims.
Domestic violence is critical and has devastating physical and emotional consequences for victims. Domestic violence during the last 20 years has been acknowledged as rapidly growing health concern. Domestic violence and abuse can happen to anyone yet the problem is often overlooked, excused or denied. This especially true when the abuse inflicted is psychological rather than physical. Domestic abuse, also known as spousal abuse, occurs when one person in an intimate relationship or marriage tries to dominate and control the other person. Domestic abuse that involves physical violence is called domestic violence.
Melinda smith, M.A, and Jeanne Segal, PhD, Domestic Violence and Abuse.Helpguide.org
Alison Heisch, ‘Elizabeth I and the reinforcement of patriarchy’, Feminist review,4(1980).