Evaluation Of Computer –Mediated Technology By Second Language Teachers
Collaboration And Interaction In The CALL
Title or Abstract
In the article, the title showed the constructs and relationships of the study, based on evaluation of the use of Computer Mediated Technology as used by the second language teachers. The abstract consisted of the purpose, method and scope of the article that encouraged the reader to read the article. Purpose of the article was clearly stated as it evaluated why language teachers did not use the Computer Mediated Technology. The author documented the purpose and introduction of the study in a relevant and logical way that the reader could understand.
The topic of the article was as per the subject of the study. Authors described relevant theories. Existing theories differed because some authors stated that some students used the computer assisted facilities in their place of work and for personal purpose, while this aspect varied from other authors’ perspective. The conflicting findings from the previous studies were discussed and insight given to explain the conflicting results from the use of the questionnaire .The decision about the design and procedures of the present study was justified in terms of previous studies since different authors stated reasons why the language teachers rarely used the language learning technologies within their classrooms. The study goals and hypothesis were clearly stated within the text.
Participants were treated ethically; since none of the participants’ was harassed during the study .Ethics committee known as experts conducted the study .They used the Cohort-oriented Virtual Campus for Effective Language Learning (COVCELL) project to derive results. Sample method was used. It gave results of the study as it was a representative of the population. The selection process used was based on the approach that, students would interact and collaborate in projects, therefore had an opportunity to share their learning experiences with their colleagues.
The selection was an assignment that consisted of participants’ required to fill in questionnaires to provide the information concerning the subject matter. Power analysis was used since the survey consisted of respondents who gave their responses as per the questionnaire provided. Sampling was biased since it did not give results of the entire population. The findings showed that neither the language instructors, nor the students made use of the computer mediated technology for learning, but used it for personal purposes. The details of non-participants were not given since the sample taken gave the results required for the study (Tedick, 2005).
Survey research design was used in the study. The primary variables were age and language level of the respondents. Validity threats identified were errors of precision due to researchers’ engagement in the tedious work of gathering information from different countries and respondents’ inability to give correct and accurate results of the study .The validity threat overlooked was use of the sample method of collecting data as it would not give accurate information. This study was classified under longitudinal type of study because it involved a sample of the population at different points; sample gave different results and a collection of data at different points with same size of the population was carried out. The invention study was used as it involved a small population that was examined to give information about the entire population (Tedick, 2005).
The instruments used in the study were well described and referenced. Reliability and validity of data presented by the instrument were presented .For instance, the questionnaire validity was established where experts gave accurate results of study, while its reliability was verified by an instrument known as cronbahs alpha index. Cronbahs alpha index is an instrument that determines the internal consistency of the data presented in the survey.
There were researcher-constructed instruments in the study as the conclusion was derived from the highest number of authors who stated that they rarely used the language learning technologies in their classrooms. Report used an exact protocol for obtaining measures as a group of people filled in questionnaires in order to give a feedback concerning the survey. Teachers were asked to report on how often they used their computer on the basis of a five-point likert scale with poles as never and on daily basis, that resulted to “never” having one point while “on a daily basis “had five points, this analysis showed that the scoring procedures were used in the study ( Tedick ,2005).
The data analysis procedures were described in detail because the administrator of the questions displayed them on the site where respondents could view and answer correctly. The analysis fitted the question asked since the results were as per the researchers requirements. Assumptions of the tests were checked. Results were tested using correlation coefficient technique. This technique tested the questionnaire results that proved to be positive, thus could be relied on to make a conclusion of the study. The extent to which the data was explored with irregularities is minimal since a computerized form of collecting data was used in the study .The missing data was ignored as the sample results were considered accurate.
The references that were related to statistical software were from the Book written by Chapelle, C. 2003 and Journal written by Whelpton, M. 2007. Practical significance was used because questionnaire administered to the respondents was a practical exercise. The confidence interval was used as the sample mean of the population was used to estimate the results of the study, thus exact values from sample were derived for the study. Authors provided precise information that made the reader understand the study.
Results and Discussion
The article’s conclusions related to the results, purpose and hypothesis of the study. In addition the results of the study were directly linked to the prior knowledge of the discussion. Limitations of the study were overcome by use of web based questionnaire. Authors provided adequate information, but varied from their opinions since they gave diverse views concerning the teachers’ attitude towards the use technology in language learning.
The study showed that figures represented the results of experiments’ carried out however; the statistics of the tables were not presented as per the writing style of the study. Figure caption identified the variables related to the subject of the paper, while the title indicated the kind of variables required for the table. The figure axes was clearly labeled in the text and well represented, thus the reader did not have to refer to the test to analyze data in order to understand the study.
The title of the study indicated the variables included in the study. The variables were distribution of sample according to age and language level while the title involved the evaluation of use of Computer Mediated Technology by the language learners’ .Rows and columns of the tables were clearly labeled. The significance tests were carried out therefore the results derived were accurate. Tables represented data information; therefore reader would not have to refer to the text to clarify the results (Tedick, 2005).
The reference list was formatted as per the American Psychological Association (APA) style and prepared in alphabetical order. However, it was not printed on a separate page at the end of the essay. References involved the key sources of the subject matter.
The writing style and citations of the study were well written. The author use of the writing style with inclusions brought about the effervescence of the reading experience of the article.
The author was well conversant and had researched the article in order to give the reader its insight. Language Teachers would be encouraged to implement the digital technologies and prepare Computer Assisted Language Learning plans in order to address the needs of language learners.
Tedick D. J. (2005). Second language teacher education: International perspectives
New York: Routledge.