Every society has undergone change in their political, economical and the entire social life.


Every society has undergone change in their political, economical and the entire social life. This is because the society is dynamic and for it to meet the emerging challenges then new intellectuals and innovations are required. The following discussion focuses on the intellectual and cultural trends in Europe in the last half of the twentieth century.


There has been transformation in the political arena in that democracy has been embraced. This has given people the freedom to participate in the political activities since their voices are considered. The governments ensure that there is accountability and transparency in their work (Grinsven 13). On the intellectual part, Europe ensures that the political arena makes the use of the learned people who are also experienced when formulating policies to govern the people. The inclusion of the intelligent people in politics enables the government to be proactive.

Social life has also undergone change. Initially there were a number of cultures and some felt that they were superior to others and this posed threat to the social order. Current change has seen the emergence of universal culture which accommodates all cultures. Formal education has been producing an intellectual culture that shuns irrational beliefs and embrace cultural diversity.

Europe has also experienced change in the economic field. This has seen shift from agricultural activities to the dominant service industries. Human labor has gradually being replaced by the use of the technologies. The intellectual trend has been useful in the invention of these technologies that have helped to increase productivity and improve on the quality of services.


Societal change is inevitable owing to the fact that social phenomena can be quit challenging and therefore, there is need for positive transformation so as to meet the current needs.


Van Grinsven: The European Council under Construction. Netherlands Institution for international Relations, p 13 2003

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