Evidence Based Table
Evidence based table:
Citation Purpose/Design/Method Level of Evidence* Sample/Setting Major Variables Studied & their Definitions (IV & DV) Measurement Data Analyses Findings Appraisal: Worth to Practice
O’Haire, M., McKenzie, S., Beck, A., & Slaughter, V. (2013). Social Behavior Increase in Children with Autism in the Presence of Animals Compared to Toys.
The main reason for carrying out the research is to study the relations of young people with autism spectrum disease (ASD) with a grown up person. The study also examines children’s typically-developing peer in the existence of animals contrasted with toys. Moreover, two guinea pigs were used in the comparison. This is a quantitative research since it uses various available data that provides useable statistics in establishing how and why social characters in young people suffering from Autism improve when they have animals and not toys. During the study, a total of 99 students from 15 classrooms in four learning institutions were chosen to take part in three groups. Each group had a single child with autism spectrum disease and two naturally- developing peers. The three groups were separately video-recorded for duration of ten minutes each. The children were given ten minutes to play with the toys and another ten minutes to play with the two guinea pigs in this context. Two blinded viewers recorded the characters of those children with ASD and their colleagues. To give an explanation for the nested study design, collected data were evaluated using hierarchical generalized linear modeling. The level of rating is 98 percent since there is enough evidence to verify the claim that children with autism improve their social characters when they play with animals and not toys. The evidence provided could show that children with ASD had extra social approach characters like talking, having a glance at people’s faces, and making physical contact. They also obtained social approaches from their colleagues in the attendance of animal compared to toys. They also show characters like smiling and laughing in the presence of animal contracted with toys. There was no power analysis in this research. The number of children who participated in the study is 114. Every group had a single target participant with ASD and two typically-developing peers. During data evaluation, five groups were not included. This is because one student left school. The other reason is that one of the peers did not want to his behaviors to be recorded in the video. Other children did not meet the ASD screening principles. The dependent variable in this research is the number of children and peers. This is because it is not constant and keeps changing. On the other hand, the dependent variable is the number of pigs. For instance, the number of pigs remained to be two regardless of the number of students or peers participating in the study. Outcome variable were measured using behavior coding systems. It comprises of various codes for social and emotional characters. Video-recording was also used during the study. Reliability and validity was also addressed for each instrument. For instance, video-recording was considered to be reliable since it is not easy to distort the information obtained. To answer the clinical question and analyze obtained data, several statistics were used. For instance, demographic variable such as age and gender were used in the study. In addition, t-tests were also carried out for continuous variables. For instance, SCQ Lifetime and SSRS Academic Competence. The statistics used were considered to be appropriate for level of measurement of variable.
Children taking part in ASD screening instruments showed that there were some dissimilarity between children with ASD and their TD peers. Children with ASD obtained high scores hence this indicated that there were abnormal characters on the autistic spectrum. Studies on SSRS indicated that ASD children had less socials skilled characters than their TD peers. This is after their scores were low in the SSRS problem behaviors.
One of the strengths of this study is that the instruments used were able to provide accurate information. Additionally, it also showed the relationship between ASD children and animals. The main limitation of the study is that there was little information concerning the IQ of the participants. The above factors should be incorporated in the next research because they are important in determining communicative outcome.
Instructions: Using the defined columns- students should input the data from the chosen reference using this pre-formatted table. Complete for all 10 references vetted for your project. The points per category are found with the category prompts per column. Your total score will be an average across the selected literature. Be sure to double check and peer review this work before submitting it. Individual scores will include the overall evidence table score and results from peer evaluations. Include a cover sheet for this submission.
Burrows, K. (2014). Sentinels of Safety: Service Dogs Enhance Safety and Enhance Freedom and Well-Being of Families With Autistic Children. Retrieved from HYPERLINK “http://www.sagepublications.com”http://www.sagepublications.com
The main objective of carrying out this research is to establish the effect of service dogs on the safety and well-being of families of those children suffering from Autism. The other objective was to establish and illustrate vital patterns of character in the connection between service dogs, parents, and autistic children. This is a qualitative research because it provides viable reasons and opinions on how security dogs can be used to provide a strong multisensory stimulus that can fight reduced sensory and efficient arousal levels of those children suffering from autism. During the study, service dogs and ten families were used. Among the participants, there were 7 boys and three young girls suffering from autism. Interview information was obtained from the parents since the children were not able to communicate. The evidence rating of this study is 70 percent considering that the information obtained from parents could not be real. This is different from the first study discussed because it also involved the use of video-recording which is not easy to distort. The research did not have power analysis since it did not have any further findings apart from the already known ideas. Sampling design uses is the collection of different families, an autistic child from each of the families and security dogs. This is where the dogs and the families were trained together. There were also five home visits after a given period of time. Semi-structured interviews were also carried out within a particular time span. The dependent variable studied is the number of family members and the independent variable was the years of those students. Their ages ranged from 4.5 to 14 years. Inductive qualitative approach was used to show the behaviors and magnitudes of interest. Field notes from participating parents formed part of the coding system. The reliability and validity of the instruments were not addressed. For instance, possible disadvantages and advantages have not been discussed. After the introduction of dogs, parents were no longer worried about taking care of their autistic children. The dogs were taken as additional care givers since they offered another set of eyes. The other statistics used it that parent slept for longer hours because they were certain that the dogs could wake them up in case their child wanted to move out at night. One of the statistical findings is that the incorporation of the services dogs into the homes under study diverted the attention of the families. For instance, there were special needs to dogs that offer important services. Walking next to the dog made the children under study to control their pace hence the walking process was more effective and relaxing. The dogs made the children to be quiet and focused during medical visits. The limitation is that there were few security dogs and this led to the use of a small sample size. Moreover, the development of the relationship between human beings and animals is always believed to be a slow process.