Evolution Flow Chart. Evaluating Research Methods

Evaluating Research Methods

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Date of Submission

6242051856740Favourable Selection

Favourable Selection

17443451856740Selected against

Selected against

50927003122930Features similar to new species’

Features similar to new species’

2913380911225Parallel evolution

Parallel evolution

5234940911225Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution



39230305167630Large groups

Large groups

26587455167630Small groups

Small groups



35731456347460Isolation (Geographic)

Isolation (Geographic)

25063456421755Gene flow

Gene flow





4157980907415Divergent evolution

Divergent evolution

42144951913890Features different

Features different

32073851974215Features alike

Features alike

38627052860040New Species

New Species

38061903675380Isolation (Reproductive)

Isolation (Reproductive)





23996654196715Genetic drift

Genetic drift

49657005996940Niche specific evolution

Niche specific evolution

48558457400290Different common Ancestor

Different common Ancestor

Evolution Flow Chart

1095375140335Reproduction (sexual)

Reproduction (sexual)

Statistical Methods

In the article from steam boats to tourism economics, the author James Mak mentions several papers he has written on the topic of tourism economics. In all these articles, it is evident that the author relies primarily on secondary data. When doing research on tourist departures in Asia, he collects data from relevant government departments to use in his research. This data was not intended for the purposes of his research, but it is the one that helps him draw inferences on the nature and frequency of travel by citizens in the particular country.

In the analysis of his data, he uses the induction approach. This is whereby data is collected and analyzed so as to come up with a trend or gather information from it. This is in contrast to deductive approach which collects data with an already pre-existing hypothesis and looks to prove or disprove it.

His research is also non experimental since he has no controls and his results do not have a specific precision that they must fulfill. This is in contrast to experimental research where the observer has a controllde environment and has a precise expected result.

His research is also quantitive in nature since he relies on numerical statistics to come up with results. He also samples several tourist hotels for bed occupancy after taxation and uses this data to come up with generalizations about the whole industry.

In one instant where he says they edited a book on Japan day to day life, he was an active observer. This can be deduced from the questions that he sought to answer e.g. why vending machines were so prevalent. From this essay, it is easy to see that a researcher can choose to use a mix of methods to best suit his aims.


Top of Form

Dwyer, L. (2011). The discovery of tourism economics. Bingley, UK: Emerald.

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