Evolution of Modern Psychology
Evolution of Modern Psychology
Psychology is a term that is used to refer to applied and academic specialization that entails the study of people’s mind and modes of conduct. This is usually aimed at giving detailed explications through feelings and deeds. It is also used in mental fitness treatment, performance improvement, self-help, and ergonomics among others (Coon & Mitterer, 2008). Psychology also involves the study of animal behavior though more emphasis has been placed on the study of people’s behavior. Generally, it is concerned at how individuals have perceptions and reactions to their surroundings, grow in it and how they strive to change these environments.
Psychology addresses a variety of issues including social knowledge, concrete knowledge, personal knowledge, general deductive principles and intuition (Vitta, 2004). This affirmation has an implication that psychology is a wide field of knowledge; with diverse theoretical and practical information on human behavior and conduct. For example, the classical conditioning advanced by Ivan Pavlov is an imperative example of psychological theories. Freudian theory on sexuality and unconscious mind is also another vital theory that helped in the advancement and development of the field of psychology (Niamh et al, 2001).
From the analysis of the diversity of information by psychological theorists, it is noticeable that psychology is a wide field that encompasses different aspects of learning. It is therefore, vital to make distinctions between key issues from trivial aspects of psychological study (Plotnik & Kouyoumdjian, 2010). By way of example, it is worthwhile to focus on behaviorism psychoanalytic theory and cognitive perspectives. Other issues such as structuralism, functionalism and birth date psychology should not be given prominence because they have contradictory views to an enormous extent and have no principal movements in the current world as they used to be many years back.
Through the analysis of human mind and behavior, the field of psychology extends to tackle issues such as ageing, burnout, compliance, death, sensations, flexibility, group thinking, hypnosis intellect, joy, love, memory, noise pollution originality, personal quantitative reasoning, repression, sexuality therapy, wisdom and vision among others. It also includes the study of hidden behaviors such as thinking, dreaming, remembering and other mental events (Russell, 1964). This wider scope of human behavior and mental activities covered in psychology present an implication that psychological studies are exceptionally vital in understanding the interactions between people within a societal setting.
The field of psychology should however, not dedicate a lot of time studying all these issues and this will be costly and time consuming. Some of the fields also tend to be narrow hence will not generate enough information (Cuoto, 2007). Scientists should therefore develop ways of determining what issues are to be tackled for example by prioritizing current and emerging issues and giving little time to those that have been there. Great weight should be given to emerging issues especially trend and behavior. For instance, the reasons for increased divorce in present marriages and the move towards single parenthood are some of aspects that psychological studies should be rooted in (Plotnik & Kouyoumdjian, 2010).
Due to its significance to the human life, psychology is noted to have developed from the main areas of study such as religion, biology, physics and philosophy. This has therefore, led to the development of issues to be addressed that are both scientific and psychological (Sharf, 2011). Among the key studies such as physiology, neuropsychology, psychological and linguistics have emerged because of this. By analyzing psychological studies we should note that a difference do exist between psychology and other theories of explaining human behavior. For instance psychology pertains to the study of human mind while sociology learns the human behavior.
Other theologies mainly deal with the society as a whole while psychology addresses an individual or a small group within the society. A major distinguishing factor between psychology and the other fields lies in the fact that psychology tends to be experimental while the other theories are observation oriented (Nevid, 2011). This assertion can be attributed to the fact that information concerned with the human mind cannot be affirmed from theoretical perspectives. Detailed research and study (analysis) of an individual or a group of people within a society is conducted so as to ascertain their behavior and then make conclusions.
Just like other forms of learning, psychological studies cannot be carried out without the application of presumptions or assumptions. Cognitive psychologists suppose that the study of internal mental processes is exceptionally vital in comprehending behavior, this means that cognitive processes actively organize the information that we receive (Myers, 2010). In reality individuals do not just reflexively act in response to the environment. Humans, just like computers are information processors. Our hardware (brain) both accept, infer and respond to information and this process can be modeled and tested scientifically. This is an evidence-based form of study as there is documented information on the same (Vitta, 2004).
Since psychology involves the study of different aspects it should employ different methodologies but among the prominent ones is experimentation, which is usually conducted in the laboratories such as memory experiments. Case study is another method; for example, the study the study of brain damage patient such as those with anterograde memory loss in memory research (Coon & Mitterer, 2008).
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