1. In a study by Corsini & Wedding (2005) the 2000s, it wascounted that there are over _____ different approaches tocounseling.a. 300b. 400c. 500d. 6002. According to the text, you should choose your counselingtheory based on:a. your supervisor’s orientation.b. the specific client with whom you are working.c. what other therapists have chose.d. none of the above3. Theory is:a. fun.b. essential to human life.c. helpful to the counselor in that he/she doesn’t get lostworking the client.d. all the above4. The principle of ___________ says the simplest explanationthat can handle the data is the best.a. stimulationb. parsimonyc. practicalityd. none of the above5. Mary sought counseling because she feels very lonely. WhenMary’s therapist began exploring the source of Mary’sloneliness, Mary disclosed that several times, people havetold her that they have a hard time dealing with her”constantly chewing things such as gum, hard candy, pencilsand pens”. Mary’s counselor, who is a well-trained analyst,believes that Mary is fixated in the Oral Stage of psychosexualdevelopment.Given this information, which of the following is true?a. Mary’s sexual drive was not satisfied from birth to age one.b. Mary received too little Erotogenic stimulation as an infant.c. Mary received too much anal stimulation as an infant.d. a and b6. Dean’s wife Jean is constantly reminding Dean to pick up afterhimself at home. Jean also gets upset because Deanfrequently volunteers his time and sometimes their moneyto their friends and other people in the community who are inneed. The result of Dean’s generosity is that Dean spendsless time at home and often they do not have enough money tocover their monthly expenses. According to Freud:a. Dean’s parents had rigid rules about toilet training andrarely praised him for success.b. Dean was not breast fed.c. Dean’s parents offered extreme amounts of praise for his success in toilet training.d. Dean never resolved his Oedipal complex.7. Nancy goes to the gym every day and pounds on a punchingbag. Which defense mechanism is she using?a. Identification with the aggressorb. Projectionc. Displacementd. None of the above8. What is the relative importance of cognition in Psychoanalytictheory?a. The client’s thoughts are the most important factor in understanding behavior.b. Cognition is important in the processing of unconscious matter.c. Thinking about the situation helps the client begin to accept the therapist as a unique individual.d. The client is encouraged to use cognition to control emotions9. What is the relative importance of behavior in Psychoanalytictheory?a. Much behavior is driven by and related to unconscious motives.b. The therapist notices that the client is more likely to perform desired behaviors when appropriately reinforced.c. The client is aware that his/her realistic anxiety drives his/her behavior.d. a and c10. The most important thing the analyst does is:a. help the client act out her unconscious impulses.b. interpret the client’s transference.c. assist the client in making peace with his mother.d. changes the client’s defense mechanisms.11. Match the phrase, “Guided by the morality principle”, with theletter of the appropriate word.a. Idb. Superegoc. Egod. None of the above12. Match the phrase, “Guided by the reality principle”, with theletter of the appropriate word.a. Idb. Superegoc. Egod. None of the above13. Neoanalytic approaches to counseling originated in Freud’s models but then deviated slightly or significantly. Which theory seems the closest to traditional psychoanalysis?a. Ego Psychologistb. Object Relationsc. Self Psychologyd. Relational Psychoanalysts14. Which theory seems to deviate most noticeable from traditionalpsychoanalysis?a. Ego Psychologistb. Object Relationsc. Self Psychologyd. Relational Psychoanalysts15. Freud and Jung had a major falling out about what?a. The name of the Vienna Psychoanalysis Society.b. The role of sexuality in regard to human behavior.c. The role of the ego.d. All of the above16. Jung’s theory of personality is comprised of dimensions thatare opposite concepts that balance each other. The dimensionthat allows people to understand themselves and others is:A. Introvert/Extrovert (I/E).B. Sensing/Intuition (S/I).C. Thinking/Feeling (T/F).D. Judging/Perceiving (J/P).17. Sarah believes that she must make straight As in all of hercounseling classes. According to Adler, she is making whichbasic mistake?a. Distorted attitudes about selfb. Distorted goalsc. Distorted conclusionsd. None of the above18. Which of the following, according to Individual Psychology, isthe most important force in how individuals form theirlifestyles?a. The creative power of the individualb. Birth orderc. Parenting styled. Sex19. Early recollections are used to:a. gain true information about an individual’s early experience.b. diagnose social interest.c. understand lifestyle.d. b and c20. The most important goal in Adlerian counseling is:a. decreasing symptoms.b. accepting one’s sex.c. resolving neurotic conflicts.d. increasing social interest.21. Darby, age 12, is always wanting to stay up late. His fatherlets Darby stay up as late as he wants, but insists that Darbyget up on time and get to school. Darby protests, saying thathe is too tired. Father insists, and Darby drags himself out ofbed and off to school. The father is using which Adleriantechnique?a. Allowing natural consequencesb. Using logical consequencesc. Imagingd. Catching oneself22. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of IndividualPsychology?a. Too simpleb. Blatant disregard for social classc. Stereotyping of sex rolesd. Failure to consider unconventional families23. Adler believed that one’s personality is formed by:a. age 6.b. adolescence.c. middle teens.d. none of the above24. One’s level of social interest, according to Adler, is:a. innate.b. relatively unaffected by family influences.c. passed on unconsciously through a multigenerational process.d. affected by problems in development.25. Adler thought that dreams:a. express unconscious conflicts.b. represent some current problems of the person.c. were great diagnostic tools.d. were not of interest in helping the client.26. The most useful skill in the Person Centered counselor’sarsenal is:a. empathy.b. interpretation.c. insight.d. teaching.27. When a person talks a lot about external events, expresses fewfeelings, and has certainty about themselves, the PersonCentered Therapist would conclude:a. they are probably not ready for therapy.b. change is not likely.c. he or she is in stage one of the therapy process.d. all of the above28. The MOST important element(s) in Person Centered therapyis/are:a. thoughts.b. feelings.c. behavior.d. physiology.29. When a client in Person Centered counseling shows resistance,they are likely reacting to:a. the therapist’s unconditional positive regard.b. their inner conflicts.c. the therapist’s interpretations.d. none of the above30. Defensiveness is the hallmark of a person traditionallydescribed as:a. neurotic.b. psychotic.c. depressed.d. all of the above31. One problem with research on Person Centered Therapy is that:a. not much has been done.b. Carl Rogers discouraged research.c. you can’t do research when the therapist is nondirect.d. it is difficult to operationalize some of the constructs.32. According to Person Centered theory, human aggression is:a. a natural part of life.b. not a part of the human psyche.c. to be suppressed in counseling.d. part of the conditions of worth.33. According to Person Centered theory, when we start to beaware of experience that is counter to our self concepts, weare first likely to:a. act out.b. subceive them.c. repress them.d. let them fully into awareness.34. Authenticity involves:a. courage.b. determination.c. willingness to face our own anxiety about not being.d. all of the above35. The most severe type of meaninglessness, according to Maddi(2005) is:a. nihilism.b. vegetativeness.c. comatose.d. none of the above36. Which of the following is NOT a theme seen in contemporaryET approaches?a. Relationshipb. Empathyc. Understandingd. Flexibility37. Bugenthal and Kleiner (1993) identified four stages of the ETtherapy process. What is the correct order for them?a. Deepening the client’s concern, developing the alliance, inner exploration, working through the resistanceb. Working through resistance, developing the alliance, inner exploration, deepening the client’s concernc. Developing the alliance, deepening the client’s concern, inner exploration, working through the resistanced. Inner exploration, working through the resistance, deepening the client’s concern, developing the alliance38. An ET counselor asks her client to mediate on her death,picture her funeral, write her obituary and decide what shewould wear. This technique is known as:a. bracketing.b. guided fantasy.c. deflection.d. paradoxical intention.39. Healthy contact with the environment, according to Gestalttheory, results in:a. assimilation.b. accommodation.c introjection.d. confluence.40. Tammy is angry because her boyfriend, Shane, has dumpedher. Every time his name is mentioned she clenches her fist,as to not hit herself, as evident with the bruises on her armsand leg. According to Gestalt Therapy, she is experiencing:a. introjection.b. retroflection.c. confluence.d. suppression.Please answer questions 41 – 43 based on the paragraph below:George is your client who is coming to counseling because he is depressed about his father’s recent death. He has told you that he has great difficulty dealing with authority figures, and after some discussion, you find out that George did not get along well with his father when he was young.41. If you are a Gestalt Therapist, you will probably conclude thatGeorge:a. is experiencing unfinished business.b. has disowned some feelings.c. is probably operating on the basis of interjected shoulds.d. all of the above42. As a Gestalt Therapist, you are authentic in your interactionwith George, but not terribly invested in helping him change.You are displaying:a. creative indifference.b. inappropriate behavior.c. retroflection.d. affirmation of the self.43. You find yourself being angry with George’s father for the wayhe treated George as a child. According to Gestalt Therapy,you are probably experiencing:a. reactive countertransference.b. proactive countertransference.c. proactive transference.d. reactive transference.44. Gestalt therapists would be likely to use which of thefollowing techniques?a. Dreamworkb. Dialogc. Hypnosisd. A and B45. Maladaptive behavior in Gestalt Therapy would NOT be likely to include:a. inability to complete gestalts.b. dichotomizing the self.c. disowning parts of self.d. cognitive distortion.46. Gestalt Therapists believe that contact:a. facilitates the development of a healthy sense of self.b. is a trivial component of a person’s more important daily activities.c. prevents healthy growth and development.d. is a positive way to reframe aggression.47. Which of the following statements best describes research thathas tested the quality of Gestalt Theory?a. Gestalt Therapy Theory is easily testable and based on sound analog studies.b. Gestalt Therapy Theory is difficult to test because of constructs that are difficult to operationalize.c. Gestalt Therapy Theory is easily testable, but the results do not generalize to other samples.d. Gestalt Therapy Theory is difficult to test because it is difficult to recruit participants for studies.Dave has a shoe phobia. It has gotten so bad that he can’t go to work because he works construction and his boss will not allow him to come to work barefoot. Dave consults with Phil the behavior therapist. Phil discovers that when Dave was young, his dad would beat Dave with his wingtips when he did something wrong.48. Phil notes that Dave, until recently, has been able to wearshoes for short periods of time. However, Dave’s phobia has gotten worse lately. Phil thinks that:a. Dave’s father has been around when Dave has been wearing shoes.b. removing his shoes reduces Dave’s anxiety.c. removing his shoes is reinforcing to Dave.d. all of the above49. Which technique is Phil likely to use to help Dave?a. Extinctionb. Punishmentc. Positive reinforcementd. Systematic desensitization50. Which one of the following is not associated with Behavior Therapy?a. Skinnerb. Watsonc. Adlerd. Pavlov51. I am trying to train my dog Fido to sit. Every time he sits, Igive him a cookie. Before I can get the behavior perfectly every time, Fido wanders off and jumps in the nearby lake. What has most likely happened here?a. I have become negatively reinforcing to my dog.b. He experiences sitting as punishment.c. He has become satiated on dog cookies.d. none of the above52. Another explanation for Fido’s behavior could be:a. he is picking up on my frustration.b. the lake is more reinforcing than dog cookies.c. he is bored and needs some new excitement.d. lake jumping has been reinforced in the past.53. Money is a _______ reinforcer.a. generalizedb. conditionalc. classicald. generalized conditioned54. Behavior Therapy has been criticized for all of the followingEXCEPT:a. it is simplistic (too simple)b. the ignoring affectc. behaviorists are cold-heartedd. it is not very operationalizable55. Ronnie and his counselor are constructing a anxiety hierarchy.What technique is being used?a. Extinctionb. Paradoxical Interventionc. Exposure and response preventiond. Systematic desensitization56. The Little Albert case study demonstrated:a. fears could be classically conditioned.b. the principles of reinforcement.c. the value of punishment.d. all of the above57. In REBT, D stands for:a. dogmatic.b. disastering.c. dysfunctional belief.d. none of the above58. When the counselor disputes my idea that people will makefun of me if I dance poorly, she is using:a. elegant REBT.b. inference chaining.c. inelegant REBT.d. a and b59. Elegant REBT has the following outcomes EXCEPT:a. commitment to something outside one’s self.b. clients learn the differences between preferences and demands.c. clients learn a better life philosophy.d. clients get insight into the development of their irrationalbeliefs.60. In REBT, resistance is seen as originating in:a. the client’s tendency to be irrational.b. the client’s belief that the therapist is mistaken.c. unconscious motivation to defeat the therapist.d. a and b61. The REBT Counselor asks the client, “Does it follow that if you got fired from this job you will never succeed at keepingone?” The therapist has just used which technique?a. Logical disputationb. Empirical disputationc. Functional disputationd. Pragmatic disputation62. The best client outcome in REBT involves:a. differentiation.b. symptom remission.c. better interpersonal relationships.d. adopting a new life philosophy.63. Holly is very concerned with her appearance and thinks thatif she sets foot out of her house without makeup, people wouldturn away from her because she is so ugly and that would beawful. Holly’s irrational belief is:a. that people would laugh at her.b. that it would be awful if people turned away from her.c. that she can’t set foot out of her house without makeup.d. that she is ugly.64. Holly’s REBT Therapist decides that she should paint her faceblue and walk around the mall. Robert, the REBT Counselor,has assigned a(n):a. interpersonal nightmare.b. proselytizing task.c. shame attacking exercise.d. reframing task.65. Cognitive Therapy has been criticized for which of thefollowing?a. Constructs are often difficult to operationalize.b. There is not enough emphasis on cultural factors that influence the client.c. There is not enough attention paid to familial influences.d. All of the above66. Which of the following does not fit with the others?a. Downward arrowb. Thought recordingc. Activity schedulingd. Shame attacking67. Researchers who have studied Cognitive Therapy generallyreport finding:a. consistent empirical evidence to support the causal modelof depression.b. consistent empirical evidence to support the descriptive model of depression.c. consistent empirical evidence to support Cognitive Therapy as the preferred method of treatment for depression when compared to other treatment modalities.d. limited empirical evidence to support the descriptive model of depression.68. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be included as a goalin the treatment plan of a client who is receiving CognitiveTherapy?a. Development of adaptive problem solving strategiesb. Demonstration of a shift from primitive to more reflective operationsc. Development of awareness of unconscious motives that are driving behaviord. Demonstration of the ability to generalize material learned in therapy sessions to every day life69. Cognitive structures used to organize information are knownas:a. schemas.b. triads.c. neurons.d. functionals.70. The initial roles of the therapist and client in CognitiveTherapy are MOST like:a. co-therapistsb. doctor-patientc. parent-childd. fellow travelers71. Empirical evidence supports that a causal relationship existsbetween:a. cognitions and psychological distress.b. cognitions and psychological well-being.c. sociotrophy, autonomy and psychological distress.d. none of the above72. Which of the following is an example of a constructive modeaccording to Cognitive Therapy theory?a. Recreational activitiesb. Creativityc. Feelings of happinessd. Perceptions of threat73. Helen arrived for her therapy session and reported to hertherapist that she is “a terrible mother” because she forgot tomake cookies for her daughter’s snack time at school today.Helen’s therapist knows from previous sessions that Helenworks very hard to maintain open communication with herdaughter about school and her friendships and has a scheduleat home that is predictable. Helen’s therapist is MOST likelyto conclude that Helen is demonstrating which of the followingcognitive distortions?a. Emotional reasoningb. Tunnel visionc. Magnification/minimizationd. Overgeneralization74. Reality Therapy advocates advise that parents should evaluatetheir parenting behavior according to whether:a. their kids adopt good values.b. it brings them closer to their kids.c. it meets the kids’ needs.d. it meets the parents’ needs.75. “Never give up” would be the mantra of the _______ Therapist.a. Gestaltb. Family Systemsc. Realityd. Interpersonal76. The key difference between the Cognitive Therapist’s andReality Therapist’s idea of the need for power is that CognitiveTherapists assert that _____ and Reality Therapist’s assert that___________.a. humans want power for the sake of having it; power is a means to an end of survivalb. power is a means to an end of survival; humans want power to satisfy aggressive urgesc. humans want power to compensate for their irrational beliefs; power satisfies the need for superiorityd. power is a means to an end of survival; humans want power for the sake of having it77. The focus of Reality Therapy on personal choice makes it a(n):a. difficult theory to use with clients who are from minority and disadvantaged cultures.b. useful theory for working with clients who are from minority and disadvantaged cultures.c. difficult theory to use with clients from the majority culture.d. useful theory for working with clients who are physically disabled.78. Which of the following is a central construct of Reality Therapy?a. Quality timeb. Basic needsc. Basic mistakesd. Organismic valuing79. According to Reality Therapy Theory, a counselor who talksabout transference is:a. using a theoretically realistic construct.b. transferring her own issues onto the client.c. avoiding responsibility for the relationship.d. meeting her own needs for power.80. The philosophy of humans that is adopted by RealityTherapists asserts that humans:a. are subject to environmental influences.b. have no desire to have control over their lives.c. are drive by a variety of internal impulses.d. are able to make choices to exert more control over their lives.81. Glasser asserts that human behavior is a function of the:a. drive to satisfy basic needs.b. environmental constraints that are placed on the individual.c. parental influence that remains over them.d. extent that they are involved in interpersonal relationships.82. Which of the following is NOT one of Reality Therapy’s basic human needs?a. Loveb. Securityc. Powerd. FunShanelle is seeing Betty F, the feminist therapist because she is having panic attacks.83. Betty and Shanelle analyze the effects that being AfricanAmerican and female have in Shanelle’s life. Betty is likely tobe which kind of Feminist Therapist?a. Radicalb. Liberalc. Culturald. None of the above84. Which of the following techniques is Betty LEAST likely to usewith Shanelle?a. Systematic desensitizationb. Gender role analysisc. Self disclosured. Assertiveness training85. According to Feminist Therapists, women get diagnosed asdysfunctional because:a. stereotypically feminine traits are not valued by society.b. male traits set the standard for health.c. society ignores the oppression of women.d. all of the above are true86. Cultural Feminists are known to focus on _______ whereasSocialist Feminists are known to focus on _________.a. the difference between males and females; cultural norms of femininityb. cultural norms of femininity; the differences between males and femalesc. oppression due to minority status; oppression due to social classd. oppression due to social class; oppression due to minority status87. Feminist Therapists are often criticized because:a. the underlying theory of FT is too complex, making itdifficult to use with most clients.b. psychotherapy is inherently oppressive.c. FT focuses too much on techniques and not enough onphilosophy and theory.d. it is only applicable to white, middle class adolescentfemales.88. In Feminist Therapy, the roles of client and counselor are:a. teacher-student.b. egalitarian.c. expert-expert.d. b and c89. Feminist Therapists promote:a. clients’ adherence to traditional sex roles.b. an egalitarian therapy relationship.c. conformity to societal norms.d. individual therapy over group therapy for all clients.90. The founder of Feminist Therapy is:a. Nancy Murodck.b. Hillary Clinton.c. Betty Friedan.d. None of the above91. Feminist Therapists like to use what to diagnose their clients?a. DSM-IVb. Chesler’s (1972) book, Women and Madnessc. Brown’s (2002) book, Subversive Dialogsd. none of the above92. When stress levels rise in a family that is of relatively lowdifferentiation, which of the following is likely to be observed?a. Problems in the couple relationship.b. Dysfunction in a child.c. Dysfunction in one of the partners.d. All of the above are possible.93. Which of the following is NOT likely to be characteristic of a Bowenian Family Therapist?a. Joins with the familyb. Maintains an “I” positionc. Relies on objective thought and observation rather than empathyd. Relates in a genuine manner94. Family Systems Theories are often criticized for:a. allowing the client to “control” the direction of the therapy.b. the role of the therapist as the “expert” and client as “passive”.c. both the client and therapist being considered “experts”.d. its relatively “loose” application of constructivism.95. Which of the following statements is NOT accurate regardingthe outcome research that has been conducted on FamilySystems Theories?a. All of the Family Systems Theories appear to be effective.b. Relatively few studies exist that examine the efficacy ofspecific Family Systems Theories.c. Researchers studying the efficacy of Family SystemsTheories have typically used controlled clinical trials to doso.d. Outcome research is difficult to conduct due to the lack ofmanualized treatment programs for Family SystemsTheories.96. Theorists from which of the following orientations tend to bethe harshest critics of Family Systems Theories?a. Person Centeredb. Behaviorismc. Gestaltd. Feminist Therapy97. Solution Focused Therapy is known to focus particularly on:a. stages of personality development across the lifespan.b. human nature.c. mechanisms of change.d. the etiology of problems.98. Solution Focused Therapists believe that it is preferable to____ during the initial session with a client.a. form a solvable complaintb. conduct a thorough social history of the clientc. solve the client’s presenting problemd. a and c99. A(n) __________ letter can be composed for clients who arereluctant about therapy to acknowledge the client’s choice andcontrol in his/her life.a. encouragingb. persuasivec. readinessd. none of the above100. A criticism of Narrative Therapy is that:a. it is too difficult to read and understand.b. it loses the family.c. it does not include a more defined theoretical structure.d. all of the above
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