Phenomenological research refers to human experience or perception relating to the proposed research topic (Grove, Gray, & Burns, 2015). This type of research helps to understand human behavior as the participant verbalizes their experience or perception and the researcher translates the statement. The participants’ statement is translated by the researcher which typically base their “study design” on Husserl or Heidegger philosophical perspectives (Grove et al., 2015). Husserl’s design or perspective is to depict the experience of the participant and in doing so researchers must set aside their own preconceptions. Heidegger’s design or perspective is to depict the experience of the participant and not setting aside their preconceptions.
Ethnographic research is the study cultures through engagement in the culture over time (Grove et al., 2015). This type of research helps to understand the participants ways of living and enduring by actively engaging in the culture. There are two philosophical approaches that can be used in this type of research which consist of the Emic and Etic approach. The Emic approach studies behaviors from inside the culture and recognizes the distinctiveness of the participant and the Etic approach studies the behavior from outside the culture and compares it with other cultures (Grove et al., 2015).
In both studies the outcome can be used by nursing to understand the perception of the participant, whether its individually and/ or culturally, this may help in managing and promoting health behaviors in patients and patients being more receptive.
Grove, S., Gray, J., Burns, N. (2015). Understanding Nursing Research, 6th Edition. 69-71. [Pageburstls]. Retrieved from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/9781455770601/
Grounded theory is data that has been systematically collected, analyzed and uncovers things such as social relationships and behaviors of groups known as social processes (Noble, Mitchell, 2016). The theory is merely created out of the data collection from the study and not from other sources such as books, and journals. This theory was created out of a non-existing theories or where there’s limited theory about a particular topic. Grounded theory involves first identifying the area of interest then recruitment of a theoretical sampling and data collection (Noble & Mitchell, 2016).
Ethnographic research is the study of people in their own environment through the use of methods such as participant observation and face to face interviewing (Park Ethnography Program, n.d.). This particular studies the culture in society especially those characteristics that make up the group. Typically, the researchers who are engage in this study spend years in the place of study in order to emerge themselves into the community. In both studies the goal is to understand in depth the situation without altering any of the data. Both studies rely on observing and interviewing the subjects.
Noble, H., & Mitchell, G. (2016, April 01). What is grounded theory? Retrieved from https://ebn.bmj.com/content/19/2/34#request-permissions
NPS Ethnography: African American Heritage & Ethnography. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nps.gov/ethnography/aah/aaheritage/ercb.htm