Positive and negative reinforcement

What is the difference between positive and negative reinforcement

easy exam i have the notes for no plagiarism

Instructions: Please answer all questions to the best of your knowledge. This exam is meant to be taken by one person at a time and is not a group exam. This exam is worth 100 points.

T or (1pt. each):

1.Addictive behaviors that do not involve the administration of a drug, still involve the release of endogenous hormones (neurotransmitters) in the reward pathway. _____

2.Addictive behaviors are predictable, we can tell when someone is going to become an addict vs. someone who isn’t. _____

3.Tolerance is when someone feels the negative feelings after using a substance? _____

4.There are 2 types of addiction/dependence? _T_ psychological / physical

Short Answer:

5.We know that addictive behavior can encompass drugs and alcohol.Please list 4 more addictions (4 pts);





6.Clinically significant substance use can lead to maladaptive behavior. Diagnosing an addictive behavior has 7 criteria according to DSM-IV. What are these 7 criteria? (7pts).








7.Diagnostically speaking, how many moths do these behaviors have to occur in order to diagnose someone with a substance abuse problem? (2pts).

8.You think your client is currently under the influence of a substance, what are 2 physiological signs/symptoms that could mean this is true? (2pts).

9.In your opinion, in 3 or more sentences,is addictive behavior a choice, disease, or something else? (7pts).

10.What are the 5 steps in the Trans Theoretical Model? (5pts)






11.Please explain the major difference between the Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) of change and the Protection Adoption Process Model (PAPM). Why is this distinction important when it comes to treating out clients? (9pts).

Trans theoreticalmodel- trying to changeand not be addicted anymore.

12.Define a drugs “half-life”. (2 pts).

13.What is the function of the reward pathway? (5pts).

14.What are 3 things that can happen after repeated administration of a substance? (3pts).

15.Why is learning theory important when trying to understand your clients? (10pts).

16.What is modeling, why do we take it in to account when looking at addictive behavior? (5pts).

17. Self-control is important in regulating our actions. Ultimately, what are the two things that self control helps us achieve? (2 pts).

18.Why is it important to consider a client’s culture when assessing them and working towards an appropriate treatment plan? (3pts).

19. What is the difference between positive and negative reinforcement? (5pts).

20. What are 3 of the neurotransmitters at work in the brain that are affected by chemical use? (3 pts).

21.What is the energy model of self regulation? Do you agree with it and why?(7pts).

22.Case Study: (15pts)

Read the following case study as if the patient was in front of you. Pick out all of the items that raise a “red flag” for you, related to what we have studied in class. Highlight and write down those red flags and explain how those affect

Case Study:

Mr. G was brought in to the emergency room by police on Friday after ingesting PCP. The pt. was sweating, violent, combative and verbally abusive towards hospital staff and police officers. Mr G’s friend called 911 from their community vegetable garden, which is their place where they go to smoke PCP, after Mr. G began to act differently than his friend had ever seen. Mr. G presents to the emergency room in handcuffs per Emergency Petition protocol. Mr. G managed to assault the two police officers who were transporting him to the hospital, then managed to swallow his own handcuff keys. Mr. G is psychotic, responding to internal stimuli and paranoid.

Mr. G is unable answer questions, but his friend is available to give collateral information. Mr. G has been using PCP for about 1 year with his friend in the vegetable garden, beginning with a couple of days a month, now up to 3 times per week. Mr. G. was previously employed as an insurance agent but lost his job about 6 months ago due to increasing drug abuse. Mr. G is now doing work here and there for a moving company and some handy man work but spends most of his time and money acquiring substances.

Mr. G’s friend states that Mr. G has been struggling with depression since losing his job and having to move in to government run housing to afford to live. Mr. G has made passive suicidal remarks in the past but has never acted on his thoughts. Mr. G’s friend says that he seems hopeless regularly but always seems to cheer up and at the thought of getting high with his friend. Mr. G and his friend also suffer from withdrawal symptoms such as body aches, slight fever, shaking and cold like symptoms but learned through Google that withdrawal is not fatal.

According to his friend, Mr. G has family history of substance abuse on his mother’s side and mental health history of major depression in his maternal side too. Mr G’s older brother committed suicide several years ago and his father left the family when Mr. G was young.Mr G’s friend is upset at the condition that Mr. G is in and has been considering rehabilitation for some time. Mr. G’s friend feels that if he tells Mr. G that he knows they have a problem and wants them both to get help, that Mr. G will be receptive. Mr. G does not seem to be aware that he has a problem, or that his substance use is the cause of his unemployment and near homelessness.