Racism and sexism

PHI 208 QUIZ 3

Question 11 pts

In what way does Peter Singer think that speciesism is similar to racism and sexism?

A )They all can be habits of thought and action that we should be striving to overcome.
B )They all involve favoring one group over another on the basis of morally arbitrary differences.
C) They are all forms of unjust prejudice and discrimination.
D )All of the above.


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Question 21 pts

The video “Meet Your Meat” can best be described as primarily communicating which message?

A)Modern industrial farming methods involve extraordinary levels of cruelty and neglect of animal well-being.
B)Modern industrial farming methods are necessary in order to feed the world’s population.
C)Modern industrial farms are open and honest about the methods they use.
D)Modern industrial farms take every measure to ensure that animal products are healthy and free of contaminants.


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Question 31 pts

What is the point of Regan’s discussion about Aunt Bea and utilitarianism’s respect for human life?

Utilitarianism feels that human life is sacred and not to be sacrificed under any circumstance
Utilitarianism would say that God’s law that “thou shalt not kill” has no exceptions
Utilitarianism might entail that one individual’s right to life can be overridden in order to save many other people’s lives
Utilitarianism says that human life does not have value at all, and so a person can be killed for almost any reason


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Question 41 pts

What is a key feature of utilitarianism according to the assigned texts?

Utilitarianism bases morality on the outcome of our actions.
Utilitarianism depends upon belief in God.
Utilitarianism denies that moral questions have a right or wrong answer.
Utilitarianism holds that actions are right or wrong regardless of the circumstances.


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Question 51 pts

In what way is Peter Singer’s argument in “All Animals are Equal” utilitarian?

It is based on an absolute prohibition on all forms of killing.
It is based on the obligation to maximize happiness and minimize suffering, no matter who or what is experiencing it.
It is based on the inherent superiority of animals to humans.
It is based on the idea that animals were created to be useful to humans.




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Question 61 pts

How do we determine the difference between higher and lower pleasures, according to Mill?

The preference of those who are acquainted with both.
The relative duration and intensity.
Their conformity to religious teaching.
We can’t, since there is no difference between pleasures.


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Question 71 pts

Which of the following describes how egg-laying hens are treated in factory farms, according to the video “Meet Your Meat”?

They are allowed to scratch through dirt and grass looking for seeds and bugs in the fresh open air.
They are given ample space to roam and to express their own natural behavior
They are kept in such tight confinement that they cannot lift their wings
All of the above


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Question 81 pts

Tom Regan’s view of animals is that:

They are exactly the same as humans in every respect, and should be treated accordingly.
They seem to have experiences and to care about their lives, which gives them a right not to merely be used.
Their value lies in the purpose they were created for, which is to serve as resources for humans.
They have bodies but lack souls, and thus lack any dignity or value whatsoever.


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Question 91 pts

What is speciesism according to Peter Singer’s account?

Allowing the interests of one’s own species to override the greater interests of members of other species.
The practice of treating all animals equally regardless of their abilities.
The part of science that studies species membership.
The view that different species have different characteristics.


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Question 101 pts

According to chapter 2 of Understanding Philosophy, which of the following would be an expression of rule utilitarianism, rather than act utilitarianism?

“Even if torturing this person right now might be beneficial, the overall consequences of permitting torture would be harmful, and so we shouldn’t allow it in any circumstance.”
“It’s okay to torture this person because it may save thousands of lives.”
“It’s immoral to torture this person because the pain it would cause him outweighs any potential benefits.”
“We shouldn’t torture this person because we wouldn’t want him torturing us.”


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Question 111 pts

According to John Stuart Mill, utilitarianism takes into account the happiness of:

only the agent.
only the agent and those the agent cares about.
everyone, and weights everyone’s happiness equally.
everyone, but weights the happiness of the agent more heavily.


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Question 121 pts

According to chapter 2 of Understanding Philosophy, which of the following makes it difficult to calculate the utility of an act, raising a potential problem for utilitarianism?

the time frame of the consequences
disagreements about the meaning of pleasure or happiness
determining what constitutes the greatest good
all of the above


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Question 131 pts

Which of the following does Tom Regan say about the utilitarian approach to animal ethics?

It is wrong because it ignores ‘utility’ and therefore does not recognize the utility of animals for human happiness.
It is correct because it does not base morality on the greatest overall happiness
It is correct because it treats human suffering as more important than animal suffering
It is inadequate because it does not give value to individuals but only to their feelings


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Question 141 pts

What is Tom Regan’s position about the use of animals in research and agriculture?

Animals may be used whenever it can be proven that the human benefits outweigh the harms caused to the animals.
Animals may never be used for medical research or commercial agriculture.
Animals may be used in both medical research and agriculture but should be treated as humanely as possible.
a& c

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Question 151 pts

According to Mill, utilitarian morality holds that:

With the right social arrangements and education, individuals can come to associate their own individual happiness with the happiness of all.
If each individual strives to maximize their own happiness, the happiness of all will follow.
Each individual is required to sacrifice their own individual happiness for the happiness of all.
Neither the happiness of the individual nor the happiness of all is worth pursuing, since neither is attainable in this life.


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Question 161 pts

What does Tom Regan say is the source of inherent value in an individual, whether human or animal?

Individuals have equal inherent value by virtue of their rational intelligence.
Individuals have equal inherent value by virtue of understanding and practicing morality.
Individuals have equal inherent value by virtue of being experiencing subjects of a life, i.e. conscious beings whose lives matter to them
Individuals have equal inherent value by virtue of being cared for and loved by others.


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Question 171 pts

Which of the following does not describe the ways that chickens and turkeys are treated on factory farms, according to the video “Meet Your Meat”

They are raised in their own excrement among corpses of other birds
They are given ample space to roam and to express their own natural behavior.
Some are so crippled from unnatural growth that they are unable to move
They are often beaten with metal rods, which is considered legal by the industry


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Question 181 pts

How does John Stuart Mill respond to the complaint that utilitarianism is a doctrine worthy of pigs?

This complaint is based on prejudice against pigs and other animals.
The life of pigs is far preferable to the life of humans, and we should strive to be more pig-like.
It’s better to have a small amount of higher, human pleasures than a large amount of lower, animal pleasures.
(a) and (b).


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Question 191 pts

According to chapter 2 of Understanding Philosophy, utilitarianism is a form of what broader kind of ethical theory?

trolly problematic.


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Question 201 pts

Which of the following statements is the strongest evidence that the person saying it is a utilitarian?

Ginny: “Violations of rights are very serious, from the moral point of view.”
Helen: “I agree. It is always immoral to violate someone’s rights.”
Ginny: “Well, I wouldn’t say ‘always’. It’s o.k. to violate rights whenever the good you can produce by doing so outweighs the harm you do by violating the person’s rights.”
Kate: “I disagree with both of you. The notion of rights is just a mechanism for the lesser members of society to maintain control over those capable of greatness.”