response to three articles

Leave substantive* comments on THREE (3) other student posts

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1. Like mentioned, our cells do not always copy correctly. It is not always bad, but sometimes it can be life threatening such as the case of Sickle cell disease. Sickle cell disease is a form of anemia where the person cannot get enough oxygen throughout the body due to not having enough healthy red blood cells. This is because it affects the hemoglobin that is in the red blood cells. When a person has sickle cell disease, their cells become a sickle or crescent shape rather than a round one. They become tough and sticky which means they cannot travel through the body as easily. As a result, the person will have a hard time getting oxygen throughout the body as blood flow is slowed down or stopped. When red blood cells have the sickle shape, they do not last as long as normal red blood cells. Oxygen cannot be carried because of this. Normally, a hemoglobin has four proteins where two subunits are called alpha-globin while the other two is called beta-globin. When a person has sickle cell disease, what happens is one of their beta-globin is replaced with hemoglobin S. Another case would be hemoglobin subunits is replaced with an abnormal one. Abnormal ones can change the red bloods cells to the sickle shape.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sic…

When it comes to cloning, I actually did not realize how much further we as a society has gone into it. I think it is quite interesting of the many ways that they can clone. I feel like by cloning, it might actually help find cures and be able to treat and cure people that before might have not been able to. It can also help by producing more resources which means possibly being able to take advantage of it either with science experiments, studying, finding cures, and stop extinction. The ethical controversy surrounding human cloning is that it is not normal. Many religious people believe people are created by God or whatever their religion might be about. Religion and science has not always mixed very well and has always been controversial. The fact that cloning is not a normal topic nor even the norm yet, many will feel uneasy and not so great about the idea of cloning humans.

Mayo Clinic Staff. “Sickle Cell Anemia.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 29 Dec. 2016, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sickle-cell- anemia/symptoms-causes/syc-20355876.

National Institutes of Health. “Sickle Cell Disease – Genetics Home Reference.” U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 9 Jan. 2018, ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/sickle-cell- disease.

2. – One example would be the example of Dolly the sheep. Dolly is the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell. Before Dolly was cloned, several other creatures were cloned such as cows and mice. But Dolly was the most famous cloned animal because that she was cloned from an adult cell. A sheep can normally live to age 11 or 12, but Dolly suffered from arthritis in a hind leg joint and from sheep pulmonary adenomatosis. Dolly’s DNA in the nucleus is wrapped up into chromosomes, they shorten each time the cell replicates. Dolly’s chromosomes were a little shorter than those of other sheep her age and her early ageing may reflect that she was raised from the nucleus of a 6-year old sheep. This means that when Dolly was born she was already six years old. Dolly died at a early age because of many genetic cloning problems. I think that Cloning animals is an interesting thing to do, but ultimately it is morally wrong. I believe that giving birth to an animal, or the process of an living being being born into this world should be through natural ways. I think that it is a very unholy thing to clone as we are violating the rules of nature. When compared to animals, cloning humans is just wrong. Every single human being is an unique being and should not be ever cloned. Imagine having another you cloned, sure it could be a lot of convenience, but the cloned you would have different personalities. Therefore I believe that there will never be a “perfect” clone, even if you clone someone he will never be same as the original. That is my stance on human cloning.

http://www.animalresearch.info/en/medical-advances…

3. Inherited disease is a disease caused in whole or in part by a change in the DNA sequence away from the normal sequence. From the article, Geneticists group genetic disorders into three categories: Monogenetic disorders, Multifactorial inheritance disorders and Chromosome disorders.I take an example of Parkinson’s Disease, which is One of the inherited disease. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological condition that typically causes tremor and/or stiffness in movement. Most people affected with PD are not aware of any relatives with the condition but in a number of families, there is a family history. In terms of Genetics, sometimes if one of our genes is not working properly the other copy of the gene cannot make up for it and that causes a condition or an increased risk of developing a condition. In most cases inheriting a non-working copy of a single gene will not cause someone to develop Parkinson’s disease.

Work Cited:

1.“Learning About Parkinson’s Disease.” National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), www.genome.gov/10001217/learning-about-parkinsons-disease/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..

2. “FAQ About Genetic Disorders.” National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), www.genome.gov/19016930/faq-about-genetic-disorders/.

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