Define psychology and psychological adjustment.

Assignment 1: Personal Reflection Journal Entry
worth 175 points

In this assignment, you will review your current level of adjustment.

Write a one to two (1-2) page paper in which you:

  1. Reflect on how well you are:
    1. adjusting to your life in terms of subjective well-being, diversity, contexts, and / or thinking critically.
    2. balancing your priorities, specifically with home, work, school, recreation, and / or family.
    3. developing your identity, specifically self-esteem, self-concept, ethnicity, and / or gender.
    4. coping with stress, specifically social support, multiple coping strategies, and / or self-control.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double-spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; Since the only resources you will be using for this assignment are the article and your textbook, you need not include a reference page. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page is not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Define psychology and psychological adjustment.
  • Identify contextual variables (e.g., culture) that impact psychological adjustment.
  • Describe self-concept, self-esteem, and identity.
  • Define stress, stressors, and coping strategies, and contemplate their relationship to health and wellness.
  • Use critical thinking skills to reflect on personal experiences with adjustment and identify new strategies for personal growth.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in psychology.
  • Write clearly and concisely about psychology using proper writing mechanics.

What do you consider to be Freud’s most significant contribution to the discipline of psychology?

Assignment 2: Discussion—Freudian Theory


Sigmund Freud, although one of the best-known personality theorists, is probably also one of the most controversial in the field of psychology. When starting to consider theories of personality, one must begin with a look at Sigmund Freud, as he was one of the first theorists to develop a psychoanalytical theory that was based on real-life patients and not studies conducted in a lab. Even if you do not agree with his theories, he is the starting point from which many other theorists have begun. Specifically, he was concerned with the development of the personality and how it created the neuroses he saw in many of his patients.

Research Freud’s theories using your textbook, the Internet, and the Argosy University online library resources. Based on your research, respond to the following:

  • What do you consider to be Freud’s most significant contribution to the discipline of psychology?
  • Of his different theories, which one do you feel is the most controversial?
  • What life factors and sociocultural factors do you think led Freud to come to the conclusions that he did?
  • Why do many people disagree with the development of Freud’s theories?
  • In general psychology and even popular culture today, there are a number of concepts that are based in Freudian theory that many do not realize stem from him. Identify a few ideas and terms that can be traced back to Freud.

psychology theology and spirituality in christian counseling

psychology theology and spirituality in christian counseling


The 4MAT Review is a way of responding to readings, lectures, and life experiences that requires you, the learner, to interact with new ideas on several levels. You will write 1 review for the Entwistle text and 1 review for the McMinn text. In preparing your 4MAT Reviews, use each of the 4 sections listed below with corresponding APA-style, Level One headings:

  1. Summary: After introducing the name of the book and author, summarize the book in at least 500 words but limited to a maximum of two pages; be adequately complete in your ideas but appropriately concise in wording. Prove that you comprehend the main ideas by writing a clear and to the point summary. The summary is not a commentary or listing of topics but rather a discussion of the core ideas in the entire book (the main ideas on which the entire book hangs). If you miss the main ideas, you lack an understanding of the complete message of the book. The summary provides the foundation for the rest of your 4MAT paper. Cite the book in-text at least once per paragraph and include page numbers for direct quotations.
  2. Concrete Responses: Be vulnerable. In at least 250 words (it is suggested that this be no more than 1 page), write about a personal life episode that this book triggered in your memory. Relate your story in first person, describing action and quoting exact words you remember hearing or saying. In the teaching style of Jesus, this is your own parable, case study, or personal connection to the main ideas of the book. Your comments in this section need to be clearly tied to main points from the book, not tangential ideas. Connect your comments to the main points for the reader.
  3. Reflection: This section is a short critique or evaluation of the author’s main ideas; include positives/negatives and strengths/weaknesses. You could consider new questions that arose for you in response to what you have read and explore concerns, implications, etc. Limit this section to 250 words (it is suggested that this be no more than 1 page).
  4. Action: What are you going to do about it? Develop action steps based on the core points of the book. This section must be a description of how the main ideas will affect your counseling. What professional changes will you implement and share with others? Be precise in summarizing your action steps and clearly connect your action steps to main points. Again, connect your comments to the main points for the reader. Present these comments in at least 200 words (it is suggested that this be no more than 1 page).

Create and submit these assignments in Microsoft Word documents; these assignments must be written on a graduate-level and must be in current APA format. Provide a title page in current APA format including only your name, the paper title (referring to the book title), and the institutional affiliation (Liberty University). Keep in mind that current APA standards recommend the title length not exceed 12 words. All pages must include a running head and page number, and all pages are double spaced. You are also required to create a references page; on this page, you must provide the complete reference citation for the book in compliance with current APA standards.

Cultural Influence in Business Psychology


Assignment 3: Cultural Influence in Business Psychology

Mark Jones, a Production Manager, has been transferred from the manufacturing plant in his hometown of Chicago to his company’s overseas manufacturing plant in Osaka, Japan.

You are the company’s I-O psychologist. Using Hofstede’s Five Basic Elements of Culture Distinction, write an e-mail message to the Vice President (VP) of Production discussing at least three cultural differences that Mark will experience in managing front-line plant workers in Japan in contrast to in the United States. Also address how cultural differences may play a role in individual differences Mark will experience.

Your e-mail message should also include at least three recommendations on how managers can take up overseas tasks with minimum transition problems. State the rationale for your recommendations.

Because the VP of Production is a busy individual, restrict your e-mail message to one to two pages. Type the e-mail message in Microsoft Word,


  • Revise and amend your Week 4 Key Assignment by adding what you learned in the Discussion Board posts following the task, as well as taking into consideration your instructor’s comments.
  • Address the following, and add your responses to your Key Assignment final draft:
    • Using your Week 4 Key Assignment, what behaviors did you observe that you would like to
      • udy of human behavior through this technique? Explain.

      examine with experimental research? Explain.

    • What theories did you create or consider by doing this study, and how would you go about furthering your stWhat did you learn about social psychology and the differences between styles of research? Explain.
    • Which do you think is most beneficial in studying group behavior? Why?
  • Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.

An intersection of psychology and artificial intelligence

The plan recognition problem: An intersection of psychology and artificial intelligence

Schmidt, C. F., Sridharan, N. S., & Goodson, J. L. (1978). The plan recognition problem: An intersection of psychology and artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence11(1), 45-83.

  • F. Schmidt,
  • S. Sridharan,
  • L. Goodson
  • Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, U.S.A.



Understanding actions involves inferring the goal of the actor and organizing the actions into a plan structure. The BELIEVER system is a psychological theory of how human observers understand the actions of others. The present theory is concerned with single-actor sequences and can account for goal-directed actions that may succeed or fail in accomplishing the goal, as well as actions governed by norms. After discussing how AI can be applied in psychological theory construction, the BELIEVER system is presented by specifying a plan recognition process and its knowledge sources.

Copyright © 1978 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Artificial Intelligence

Volume 11, Issues 1–2, August 1978, Pages 45–83

Applications to the Sciences and Medicine



Why not a Sociology of Machines? The Case of Sociology and Artificial Intelligence

  1. Steve Woolgar
  2. Woolgar, S. (1985). Why not a Sociology of Machines? The Case of Sociology and Artificial Intelligence. Sociology Sociology, 19, 557-572. doi:10.1177/0038038585019004005


In the light of the recent growth of artificial intelligence (AI), and of its implications for understanding human behaviour, this paper evaluates the prospects for an association between sociology and artificial intelligence. Current presumptions about the distinction between human behaviour and artificial intelligence are identified through a survey of discussions about AI and `expert systems’. These discussions exhibit a restricted view of sociological competence, a marked rhetoric of progress and a wide variation in assessments of the state of the art. By drawing upon recent themes in the social study of science, these discussions are shown to depend on certain key dichotomies and on an interpretive flexibility associated with the notions of intelligence and expertise. The range of possible associations between sociology and AI reflects the extent to which we are willing to adopt these features of AI discourse. It is suggested that one of the more important options is to view the AI phenomenon as an occasion for reassessing the central axiom of sociology that there is something distinctively `social’ about human behaviour.





1.    Carnegie Mellon University


The potential linkages between artificial intelligence and sociology are growing. This growth is due to importation of artificial intelligence techniques into methodological tools for data analysis, a growing interest among researchers in artificial intelligence in the socially situated agent, and a growing interest among sociologists in using artificial intelligence techniques for theorizing about social phenomena. Increasingly, researchers are addressing concerns of traditional importance within sociology, such as the bases for cooperation, the role of structure in affecting individual agency, and interaction using computational models of intelligent adaptive agents. This article provides an overview of the role that artificial intelligence currently plays within sociology.



Carley, K. (1996). Artificial Intelligence within Sociology. Sociological Methods & Research, 25(1), 3-30. doi:doi: 10.1177/0049124196025001001





Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

September 2001, Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 155-186

Naming the Unnamable: Socionics or the Sociological Turn of/to Distributed Artificial Intelligence

  • Thomas Malsch


%0 Journal Article

%D 2001

%@ 1387-2532

%J Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

%V 4

%N 3

%R 10.1023/A:1011446410198

%T Naming the Unnamable: Socionics or the Sociological Turn of/to Distributed Artificial Intelligence


%I Kluwer Academic Publishers

%8 2001-09-01

%A Malsch, Thomas

%P 155-186

%G EnglishBottom of Form

Discuss the foundational information for positive psychology and the featured element or concept of positive psychology

This year, the American Positive Psychology Association’s (APPA) annual conference is being conducted in your area, and you are interested in making a presentation. Review the flier below.

Using the module readings, Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, research the positive psychology model. Then, based on your research, do the following:

  • Select one of the featured elements of the positive psychology model on which you will prepare an application for the APPA Conference call for proposals as stated in the flier.
  • Develop a PowerPoint presentation as part of your application. Cover the following points in your presentation:

    • Discuss the foundational information for positive psychology and the featured element or concept of positive psychology on which you have chosen to focus.
    • Analyze and apply current research to support the efficacy of this element or concept of positive psychology. Provide a minimum of three scholarly references of research conducted within the past five years.
    • Argue the benefits of this element or concept in contrast to two different techniques in general psychotherapy such as cognitive restructuring (from cognitive/behavioral theory) or dream analysis (from psychodynamic theory).
    • Summarize several significant factors that contribute to a positive outlook based on current research.
    • Analyze the potential advantages of this positive outlook and what changes would need to be implemented to impact the mental health field.
  • Be sure to include a title slide and a slide with a list of scholarly references.
  • Remember to include detailed speaker notes for each slide in your presentation.

Develop a 15–20-slide presentation in PowerPoint format. Each slide should contain 75–100 words of description and research. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use the following file naming convention: This assignment is worth 300 points and will be graded using a rubric.

Assignment 1 Grading Criteria
Maximum Points
Discuss founding information on positive psychology and the featured element/concept of positive psychology chosen.
Analyze and apply current research to support the efficacy of this element/concept of positive psychology.
Argue the benefits of this technique in contrast to two different techniques in general psychotherapy, such as cognitive restructuring (from the cognitive/behavioral theory) or dream analysis (from the psychodynamic theory).
Summarize the factors that contribute to a positive outlook based on current research.
Analyze the potential advantages of this positive outlook and what changes would need to be implemented to impact the mental health field.
Presentation StandardsOrganization (16)

Usage and Mechanics (16)

APA (24)

Style (8)


Note: The American Positive Psychology Association (APPA) is a fictional organization created for the purpose of this assignment.

the difference between basic psychology and applied psychology.

Chapter 1 pointed out the difference between basic psychology and applied psychology. Furthermore, Chapter 6 notes that consumer products are sometimes designed with little thought for visual principles, such as those formulated by the Gestalt psychologists. Distinguish the difference between basic and applied psychology. How can this knowledge be used within the marketing environment? Your response should describe some ways in which knowledge of Gestalt principles could be applied to the design of consumer products.

Your response should be at least 200 words in length. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.



Under normal conditions, the rhythms governed by the SCN are synchronize, but when people travel by air across several time zones, they tend to feel out of sync. Explain what psychologists have discovered about being out of sync.

Your response should be at least 200 words in length. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

2Create a timeline that displays the development of abnormal psychology. Include at least seven main milestones.

Statistical Reasoning in Psychology

PS390 Statistical Reasoning in Psychology


Directions: Be sure to save an electronic copy of your answer before submitting it to Ashworth College for grading. Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English, spelling, and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) double‐spaced pages; refer to the “Format Requirementsʺ page for specific format requirements.




StatCrunch tutorial videos are available at


  1. (25 points) A sports psychologist gave a questionnaire about healthy eating habits to randomly selected professional athletes. The results are displayed below. Using the .05 significance level, is there a difference in healthy eating habits among professionals in the three sports?


Baseball Players              Basketball Players              Football Players

32                                    27                                        27

27                                    36                                        23

26                                    25                                        26

35                                    30                                        20


  1. Make a graph for the data set.


  1. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing (report results in APA format).


  1. Figure the effect size of this study.


  1. Conduct a planned contrast for Baseball versus Football players (using Tukey’s HSD).




  1. (25 points) A researcher is interested in the effects of sleep deprivation and caffeine intake on mood. Participants were randomly assigned to a sleep condition (normal or deprived) and a caffeine condition (0 cups, 2 cups, or 4 cups). After the manipulations, mood was measured (such that higher numbers indicated better mood). The results were as follows:


Normal Condition                            Deprived Condition

0 cups  2 cups  4 cups                          0 cups  2 cups  4 cups

16       18         18                                0          5          6

17       20         17                                6          4          8

20       20         17                                3          4          6

19       19         17                                2          2          7

18       18         16                                4          5          8


Analyze these data using a factorial analysis of variance and including R2 for each effect.


  1. (25 points) A researcher was interested in whether college GPA (X) would predict starting salary after college (Y). (For simplicity, salary was converted to a 100-point scale.) The participants’ scores were:


X                      Y

2.25                 55

1.75                 23

3.25                 80

3.75                 42

M = 2.75          M = 50


  1. Report the correlation and linear prediction equation.


  1. Make a graph with the regression line.


  1. Figure the standardized regression coefficient.



  1. (25 points) An advertising firm wanting to target people with strong desires for success conducted a study to see if such people differed in the types of television shows they watched. Randomly selected participants recorded the shows they watched for a week, then their desire for success was assessed, and finally they were divided into two groups. Low Success seekers watched 8 comedies, 15 romances, 6 documentaries, 13 dramas, and 3 news shows. High Success seekers watched 3 comedies, 3 romances, 9 documentaries, 7 dramas, and 8 news shows. Using the .05 significance level, is the distribution of type of shows watched different for participants having high and low desires for success?


  1. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing.



  1. Figure a measure of effect size and indicate whether it is small, medium, or large.

Psychology of Women Extra Credit

Psychology of Women Extra Credit

For the individual student, successful completion of this paper and submission online according to the posted instructions before midnight on WEDNESDAY, August 12may earn as much as 10 extra credit points. Late submissions will not be graded.

The paper is expected to:

  1. Be between 300-600 words in length (12pt, double spaced), be cut & pasted into the textbox provided, no attachments.
  2. Focus on an identity that is an important part of the student’s personal self-image, experience and life (race, ethnicity, social class, religion, ability status, sexual orientation, gender, etc.) This is to be about you, female or male, the identity must apply to YOU.
  3. Reference, summarize and interpret a source outside of our text and not one of the assigned resources for the class (a research article, a website that is not a wiki or blog, a book or full length video) that relates to women and also to the student’s own specified identity (complete citation required so I can access your referenced source).
  4. Incorporate how that identity has shaped at least 3 of the following: your beliefs, thoughts, values, experiences, self-concept (if applicable), or interactions regarding women. Please connect the outside resource, your own experience/perspective and specific course content/terminology.
  5. An example would be if I wrote about being a Black woman, and cited a video where African American women are being described as “bitches & hos” and how that impacts me, my relationships with my daughters, etc. I might connect to issues of self-esteem, body-image, being viewed as “less than…,” being defined by my appearance, being distanced from mainstream definitions of beauty…and so forth…
  6. If you are male, look into how the identity you have selected has impacted your interactions with or beliefs towards women…or how this same identity might have played out differently if you were female. Think deeply about the implications here.
  7. Demonstrate personal insight and the student’s ability to thoughtfully synthesize course related research concepts, implications of the outside resource, along with the student’s own experiences and values.
  8. Demonstrate good grammar, organization, sentence structure, and appropriate use of course terminology and vocabulary.
  9. Late papers will not be accepted under any circumstances.

Demonstrate an understanding of intelligence and learning in the framework of Gardner by comparing and contrasting the traditional definition of intelligence (IQ) with multiple intelligences.

Traditionally, someone who is intelligent is defined as an individual who can solve problems, use logic to answer questions, and think critically. However, psychologist Howard Gardner has created a much broader definition of intelligence.

Demonstrate an understanding of intelligence and learning in the framework of Gardner by comparing and contrasting the traditional definition of intelligence (IQ) with multiple intelligences. Thinking critically about these difference, comment on how Gardner’s ideas might change the way some assess a person’s strengths and weaknesses. Do these ideas significantly affect this type of evaluation? Apply the principles of multiple intelligences (MI) to the following questions:  300 words

    • If you were to assign one of the multiple intelligences to yourself, what would it be, and why?


    • Which of the MIs do you think are most valued by schools and society? Why?


    • On what evidence, including personal experiences, do you base your opinions?


    • If work environments recognized multiple intelligences, how might training, counseling, or classroom activities be revised to address these principles?


  • How might an understanding of multiple intelligences change the ways in which you view your own abilities? Why, or why not?

Second Part 300 words

Information on how we learn can be applied to areas such as in health, leadership, business, employee training, and the family. It can also help you to assist people to understand the needs of others’ more successfully and create more successful learning, organizational, and personal environments.  In this discussion, you will demonstrate your understanding of schema theory and scaffolding by sharing about your educational background and the ways you have been taught new knowledge in the past.

Evaluate schema theory and its potential application to learning psychology. Compare one method of learning you have experienced that did not align with anything you knew or believed to a method that built on your existing schema (scaffolding). Thinking critically about the inherent differences in the outcomes in these two situations, what differences were there for you in the level of difficulty of remembering the material? Analyze and comment on how this learning theory applied to these two real-life situations. What other differences you can think of?  How might you apply the principles of this theory when providing new information to a diverse group of individuals?


part 3

Demonstrate your understanding of the complexities of how we learn by evaluating the potential correlations between symbolic interactionism and constructivism. Apply basic research methods in psychology to your post by synthesizing the principles from the articles in your own words with appropriate citations. Do not quote the articles directly. Based on your course resources, scholarly articles, and the knowledge you have developed throughout the past four weeks, critically consider how/if these correlations might affect a person’s ability and/or willingness to learn new material. Consider the following in your analysis:


  • Symbolic interactionism is actually a theory posed in sociological psychology. Do you believe this theory can be aligned with the framework of constructivism, which originates from learning psychology? Why, or why not? Support your statements with scholarly research and personal examples.
  • In your opinion, what prevents (or substantiates) their correlation?
  • Based on these theories, what possible needs should be considered when teaching skills to a group of diverse learners?