Educational PsychologyUnit 1 20. If we extend research findings regarding effective parenting styles to the classroom, teachers would be well advised toa reward good behavior and ignore inappropriate behaviorb establish fair rules and high expectations and provide loving supportc insist on strict obedience with immediate punishment for infractionsd allow students to make their own decisions regarding how they should and should notUnit 213 Three of the following are examples of learned behavior. Given the textbook’s definition of learning which behavior probably does not reflect learning?a After many hours of heated debate Brain begins to modify his religious beliefsb Cara suddenly recognizes how the division 24 % 4 = 6 is related to the multiplication fact6 x 4 = 24c David has been running away from German shepherds ever since he was bitten by aGerman shepherd two years agod Abigail cries when she feels sad.16 Which of the following researchers is drawing an inference about cognitive processes from her observations of behaviora Dr. Aragon finds that students who listen to an organized lecture remember more information than students who listen to an unorganized lecture she concludes that organized material promotes better learningb Dr. Cooper discovers that students remember more when new concepts are illustrated by pictures as well as being verbally described she concludes that visual imagery helps learning and memory.c Dr. Burger finds that students who learn information word for word don’t remember it for very long she concludes that requiring students to learn information verbatim isn’t an effective teaching strategy.d Dr. Delgado finds that students who listen to foreign language tapes while sleeping don’t remember what they’ve heard she concludes that being awake is necessary for learning to occur20 Mr. Janus tells his class for tomorrow class read pages 23 to 49 in your geography book. Three of the following students are demonstrating the process of construction in their perceptions of what their teacher has said which student is not>a Christopher hears the teacher say pages 33 to 39 because the student next to him is coughing loudlyb Anthony thinks the teacher is saying history bookc Bonita doesn’t hear what the teacher says because she’s thinking about something elsed Dena understands the teacher even though the teacher speaks with a slight accent andMispronounces the word geography.21 Michael has just written a short research paper that describes the events surrounding the first transatlantic telegraph cable. As he reads paper before giving it to his teacher he doesn’t notice that he has misspelled Atlantic as Altantic on one occasion even though he knows perfectly well how the word should be spelled. Michael’s proofreading error can best be explained by considering the role in the construction of meaning.a a script b expectationsc assessmentd ambiguity24 Distributed cognition can best be described as a a group od students thinking about a task or problem togetherb student trying to accomplish several different task simultaneouslyc group of students dividing up the various parts of a task that need to be doned student choosing one problem-solving strategy over other possible strategies25 Which one of the following examples best illustrates the concept of distributed cognition?a Rhonda watches her favorite situation comedy while simultaneously eating an apple anddoing her homeworkb Edie, Linda and DeWayne discuss ways they might solve a physics problem c Mark, Jason and Leanne each solve one-third of their homework problems and then share their results with the other twod Reginald thinks about the various plots he might use in the short story he is writing and then eventually chooses one of themUnit 33 Which one of the following recommendations is consistent with current beliefs about transfer?a Study German so you’ll have easier time leaning Japanese next year.b Studying calculus will help you think more abstractly about the various subjects you will study in college.c Take computer programming to help you develop your analytical thinking skills.d Use your knowledge of algebra to solve this chemistry equation5 Three of the following are accurate statements about factors that affect transfer which statement is inaccurate ?a Students are more likely to transfer what they learned when they see it as belonging to a particular academic subject areab Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have studied it for a lengthy period of timec Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have learned it in a meaningful rather than rote fashiond Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have learned general principles rather than specific facts.6 In which one of the following situations are we most likely to find transfer from one learning task to the other?a Brianne learns how to plant corn and then learns how to prune a hedgeb Alice learns how to add two- digit number and then studies how to add three-digit numbersc Devlin learns how to play softball and then learns how to play a card gamed Cathy learns early British history and then learns early Japanese history7 a police officer visits Ms. Duhaime’s first- grade class one morning to talk about safety precautions at home and on the street. The student listen quietly and attentively while the officer speaks. At the end of the visit the officer and the teacher agree that the students good behavior warrants some kind of reinforcement. Given what we know about effective reinforcers at different grade levels their best choice would bea a letter home to parents describing the children’s good behaviorb plastic toy police badges awarded by the officerc an official-looking good behavior certificate given at the school’s award ceremony the following week d twenty minutes of free time at the end of the day13 Considering what we know about the kinds of models people are likely to imitate we can guess that the girls in our classes will be least likely to imitate a Brianne head majorette in the school band b Anita a skillful auto mechanicc Darla a graceful dancerClaudia the most popular girl in school14 From the perspective of social cognitive theory, why might inner-city African American students learn more from an African American model grew in a ghetto than from a model of a different race or background?a Because the students will view the African American model’s behavior as being applicable to their own situationb because the students are more likely to realize that the African American model has prestigec because the African American model is more likely to behave in a gender-appropriate mannerd because the students are more likely to perceive the African American model as being competent16 Only one of the following definitely illustrates high self-efficacy which one is the best example of self-efficacy?a Carmen enjoys being with her friendsb Bryn swims the fastest butterfly on the swim teamc Amy recently got a score of 120 on her intelligence testd Danielle knows she is a good singer17 Jim has a high sense pf self-efficacy regarding his ability to work with wood. Based on this information we would predict three of the following from social cognitive theory which one of the following would we not necessarily predict.a Jim will be a bit careless when he works with wood so he will often make silly little mistakesb Jim will frequently choose activities that involve working with woodc Compared to Joe who has low self-efficacy Jim do a better job at woodworking tasksd If Jim has difficulty at task requiring his woodworking skills he will tend to try try again until he gets it right 20 Which one of the following students clearly has a mastery goal rather than a performance goala Alice stays away from science courses because she never done very well in scienceb Dinah doesn’t worry about making mistakes as long as she knows she making progressc Boris wants the recognition that being a star football player will bring himd Cal is relieved to learn he passed his English composition course25 Which one of the following students is attributing success or failure on a geology test to an internal source and thinks the cause is unstable and controllable?a Duncan said he did well on the test because he studied hardb Joe said he studied hard but failed because he is just not good in geologyc Jane said she failed the test because it was too difficultd Emily said she did well on her test because she is smart in science Unit 4 1 Mr. Phillips wants his students to develop the ability to separate and control variables in scientific experimentation. Which one of the following instructional methods is most likely to help his students achieve this goal?a individualized assignments using computer spreadsheets b unstructured discovery learning activitiesc small group reciprocal teaching activities d scaffolded inquiry learning activities3 Which one of the following is the best example of an authentic in class activity a discussing reasons why world war 1 occurredb putting definitions of new term in your own wordc listing four different kinds of sedimentary rocksd designing a bridge using principles of physics4 Which one of the following uses of a computer in instruction is most to an authentic activity?a a computer based instructional program that teaches the various parts of the human digestive systemb a computer based instructional program that teaches the basics of first aidc a computer simulation that allows students to conduct an experimentd a computer game that promotes automaticity for basic math facts5 The four teachers below are assigning homework to their students which teacher is giving an assignment that’s inconsistent with general recommendations regarding the appropriate use of homework?a Mr. Needham asks his first grades to bring something from home that begins with the letter Bb Ms. Wong asks her sixth graders to make up sentences using each of their new spelling words.c Ms. Powell asks her high school algebra students to read the next two chapters in their textbook and than do the problems at the end of each chapter.d Mr. Rhodes asks his eighth grades to write the answers to a series of questions based on material they’ve been studying over the past week6 Three of the following are purposes that asking in class can serve which one is not a typical use of asking questions?a to decrease the extent to which students need to cognitively process classroom materialb to encourage students to elaborate on classroom materialc to help students monitor their own comprehension of classroom materiald to determine whether students understand classroom material10 Three of the following describe recommendations that the textbook offers for helping students with special needs which statement is inconsistent with the textbook’s recommendationsa Give students with physical disabilities any additional time they may need to complete assigned tasksb When students have significant general delays in cognitive development give them explicit feedback about their behaviorc When students have specific cognitive or academic difficulties teach them strategies for organizing their time more effectivelyd When students have social or behavioral problems vary the classroom routine considerably from one day to the next11 Which one of the following best illustrates collective self-efficacy of teachers?a A third grade teacher and a fourth grade teacher at North Elementary School have combined their two classes into a single class sometime they team teach the entire group at other times they divide the class into smaller groups one of which is ready for more advanced work than otherb the teachers at South Elementary school have coordinated what they do at each grade level so that at any particular grade students master the knowledge and skills they will need in the following grade.c The English teachers at east high school have agreed on how they will teach the required freshman English class that way students will have a similar classroom experience no matter which teacher they have for coursed The teachers at west middle school confer weekly about students who they believe are at risk for academic failure and they are confident that by working together they can help these students be successful at school13 Which one of the following is a drawback of using essay question on a paper-pencil assessmenta Lengthy essay questions can limit sampling of the content domain being assessedb Guessing is likely to inflate students scores considerablyc Reliability tends to be lower than that for recognition tasksd The administration of essay questions is difficult to standardize14 From the textbooks perspective which one of the following is primary advantage of allowing students to use reference materials during a paper-pencil assessmenta students are more likely to learn material meaningfully if they know they are going to have an open book test rather than a closed book testb such a procedure is less likely to lead to test anxiety than would otherwise be truec students don’t have to study the material ahead of time they can simply learn it during the assessment sessiond such a procedure better assesses students ability to apply material that they don’t necessarily need to commit to memory17 which one of the following illustrates the use of a rubric in a classroom assessment a in swimming test students are asked to swim one lap each of the breaststroke backstroke and crawlb a math assignment presents a complex problem with several parts and asks students to break it down into at least five simpler problemsc Responses to a 10-point essay in history class are given 5 points for describing historical events accurately 4 point for explaining how the events are interrelated and 1 point for using complete sentences throughout the essayd a science test has 30 multiple choice questions 10 alternative response questions 3 short answers questions and one essay18 The four students below have just received feedback about there test performance with the textbooks discussion of assessment and feedback in mind choose the student who is most likely to benefit from the feedback he or she has receiveda Garry got his multiple choice science test back with the errors circled in red and the comment younned to study harder for the next test written at the top of the pageb Kerrie received her math test with any incorrect answers corrected in red and with the comment you have learned how to carry in addition but are having trouble with borrowing in subtractionc Jerry could not see his geography test after it was scored as his teacher plans to use the test again with next years class however he’s gotten the feedback you need to work more on the characteristics of the countries were studyingd Harry received his history essay test with the comment you have through knowledge of history but your discussion is vague and disorganized23 three of the teachers below are using strategies consistent with the textbooks recommendations regarding the use of portfolios which one is not consistenta Ms. Gaudent list the criteria that she will use to evaluate students portfoliosb Ms. James tells each of her students which specific artifacts they should in their class portfoliosc Ms. Salih ask students to include at least four writing samples written at various times during the school year in order to show how they have improved over timed Ms. Shaklee asks her students to include a brief statement about each of the entries they include in their portfoliosp.s in case this helps the book I ‘am using is Educational Psychology Developing learners seventh edition
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